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Chapter 1

The Marketing Management Process

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why Are Marketing Decisions Important?


Marketing attempts to measure and anticipate the needs and wants of a group of customers and respond with a flow of need satisfying goods and services.

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Why Are Marketing Decisions Important?


Firms should:
Target those customer groups whose needs are most consistent with the firms resources and capabilities. Develop offerings that meet the needs of the target market better than competitors. Make its products and services readily available to potential customers.

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Why Are Marketing Decisions Important?


Firms should:
Develop customer awareness and appreciation of the value provided by the companys offerings. Obtain market feedback as a basis for continuing improvement in the firms offerings. Work to build long-term relationships with satisfied and loyal customers.

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Why Are Marketing Decisions Important?


The importance of the top line
In the long run, all firms must make a profit to survive. There can never be a positive bottom line without the ability to build and sustain a healthy top line: sales revenue. That is why the customer focus inherent in the marketing function is important.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


Marketing is a social process involving the activities necessary to enable individuals and organizations to obtain what they need and want through exchanges with others and to develop ongoing exchange relationships.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


The parties in an exchange
Ultimate customers buy goods and services for their own personal use or the use of others in their immediate household.
These are called consumer goods and services.

Organizational customers buy goods and services for resale; as production inputs; or for use in the day-to-day operations.
These are called industrial goods and services.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


Customer needs and wants
Basic physical needs are critical to our survival. Social and emotional needs critical to our psychological well-being. Wants reflect desires or preferences for specific ways of satisfying a basic need. Marketersand many other social forces influence peoples wants.
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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


Products and services
Products are essentially tangible physical objects that provide a benefit. Services are less tangible and, in addition to being provided by physical objects, can be provided by people, institutions, places, and activities.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


How exchanges create value
Customers buy benefits, not products. Value is a function of intrinsic product features, service, and price, and it means different things to different people. Lifetime customer value the present value of a stream of revenue that can be produced by a customer over time.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


How exchanges create value
The assets linked to a brands name and symbol constitute the brands equity. A brands value to the company depends on how much value customers think the brand provides for them; value creation cuts both ways.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


A market consists of individuals and organizations who are interested and willing to buy a particular product to obtain benefits that will satisfy a specific need or want, and who have the resources to engage in such a transaction.

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Marketing Creates Value by Facilitating Exchange Relationships


The total market for a given product category is often fragmented into several distinct market segments.
Each segment contains people who are relatively homogeneous in their needs, their wants, and the product benefits they seek. Each segment seeks a different set of benefits from the same product category.

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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Marketing management occurs whenever one party has something it would like to exchange with another.
It is the process that helps make such exchanges happen. The framework has a distinct decision-making focus.

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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


A good strategic marketing plan should focus on the 4Cs:
The companys internal resources, capabilities, and strategies The environmental context in which the firm will compete The needs, wants, and characteristics of current and potential customers The relative strengths and weaknesses of competitors and trends in the competitive environment.
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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Corporate strategy:
Reflects the companys mission; businesses to pursue, resource allocation, and growth policies.

Business-level (or competitive) strategy:


Addresses how the business intends to compete.

Marketing strategy
Decisions about market segments, product line, advertising appeals and media, prices, and partnerships.
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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Market opportunity analysis
Requires an examination of the external environment, including the markets to be served and the industry of which the firm is a part. Customer analysis Marketing research and forecasting Market segmentation, targeting, and positioning decisions
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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Formulating strategic marketing programs
Specifying marketing objectives and strategies. The controllable elements of a marketing program (4Ps) are the product offering; price; promotion; and place. The marketing mix is the combination of controllable marketing variables that a manager uses to carry out a marketing strategy in pursuit of the firms objectives in a given target market.
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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Formulating strategic marketing programs for specific situations Implementation and control of the marketing program The final tasks are determining whether the program is meeting objectives and adjusting the program when performance is disappointing.
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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


The marketing plana blueprint for action
A marketing plan is a written document detailing the current situation with respect to customers, competitors, and the external environment and providing guidelines for objectives, marketing actions, and resource allocations over the planning period for either an existing or a proposed product or service.

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What Does Effective Marketing Practice Look Like?


Three major parts to the marketing plan:
First, the marketing manager details his or her assessment of the current situation. The second part details the strategy for the coming period. Finally, the plan details the financial and resource implications of the strategy and the controls to be employed to monitor the plans implementation and progress over the period.
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Who Does What?


Marketing institutions
Vertical integration: In a few cases, nearly all marketing activities are performed by a single organization and its employees. Marketing channels or channels of distribution.
Merchant wholesalers Agent middlemen Retailers Facilitating agencies
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Who Does What?


Cost of marketing activities
The final selling price reflects the costs of performing the activities necessary for exchange transactions. Those costs vary widely.
They account for a relatively high proportion of the price of consumer package goods. Marketing costs for nontechnical industrial goods are much lower

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Who Does What?


Benefits of the marketing system:
Customers can buy a wide variety of goods from a single source in one transaction, thereby increasing transactional efficiency. Specialization of labor and economies of scale lead to functional efficiency.

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Who Does What?


Benefits of the marketing system:
The increased transactional and functional efficiency of exchange increases the value for the customer. A product has greater utility for a potential customer when it can be purchased with a minimum of risk and shopping time (possession utility), at a convenient location (place utility), and at the time the customer is ready to use the product (time utility).
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Who Does What?


Room for improvement in marketing efficiency
Marketing costs have increased in recent years because various reasons. At least part of the problem can be attributed to marketers themselves. Marketing managers have been slow to develop accurate measures and metrics of marketing performance and, therefore, slow to understand the effectiveness of various marketing actions relative to their costs, and thus their impact on bottom line.

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Who Does What?


The role of the marketing decision maker
The title marketing manager is necessarily and intentionally vague because many people are directly involved with marketing activities. Many marketing activities are usually contracted out. Implementing a marketing plan requires cooperation and coordination across specialized functional areas. Marketing isor should beeverybodys business.
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Some Recent Developments Affecting Marketing Management


Globalization
Promising opportunities for additional sales growth and profits. Differences in market and competitive conditions.

Increased importance of service


Services are the fastest-growing sector of most developed economies around the world. The intangible nature of many services can create unique challenges for marketers.
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Some Recent Developments Affecting Marketing Management


Information technology
Firms can collect and analyze more detailed information about potential customers and their needs, preferences, and buying habits. Use of Web sites to communicate product information, make sales, and deal with customer problems. Ability to forge more cooperative and efficient relationships with suppliers and channel partners.
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Some Recent Developments Affecting Marketing Management


Relationships across functions and firms
More firms are trying to develop and nurture long-term relationships and alliances. Such relationships are thought to:
Improve each partners ability to adapt quickly to environmental changes or threats. Gain greater benefits at lower costs from its exchanges. Increase the lifetime value of its customers.

Similar cooperative relationships are emerging inside companies.


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Take-Aways
Marketing is pervasive. Customers buy benefits, not products. Delivering superior value to ones customers is the essence of business success. A focus on satisfying customer needs and wants is not inconsistent with being technologically innovative.
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Take-Aways
The marketing management process requires an understanding of the 4Cs. Marketing decisions are made or approved at the highest levels in most firms, whether large or small.

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