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The School As A System

Objectives:
Define organizational theory Describe the Evolution of Organizational Theory 3 competing systems 1. Rational systems 2. Natural - systems 3. Open systems Discuss schools as an open social system

Organizational Theory
set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and generalization systematically describes and explains patterns of regularities in organizational life

Evolution of Organizational Theory


A Systems Perspective an organized whole, or system, occurring in an environment is fundamental and essential to science early system analysis of schools viewed it as a closed systems

Three Competing Systems Perspectives (W. Richard Scott)


Rational systems, natural-systems, and opensystems Relatively distinct, partly overlapping, partly complimentary, as well as partly conflicting Each has its antecedents in earlier organizational thought

Historical Roots
Scientific Management Focus: Organizational Goals Time Frame: 1900-1930 Pioneers: Taylor, Weber Fayol Gulick Urwick

Contemporary Systems Perspectives


Rational Systems Perspectives

Focus: Formal Organization, Rationality, & Efficiency Time Frame: Contemporary

Rational Systems Perspectives


Key Concepts Key Assumptions & Principles

Goals
Division of labor Specialization Standardization

1. Organizations exist primarily to accomplish their goals 2. Division of labor leads to specialization 3. Specialization promotes expertise 4. Standardization of tasks produces efficiency

Rational Systems Perspectives


Key Concepts Key Assumptions & Principles

Formalization
Hierarchy of authority Narrow span of control Control

5. Formalization of activities efficiency 6. Hierarchy promotes disciplined compliance 7. A narrow span of control improves supervision 8. Administrative Control is essential for efficiency

Key Concepts Rationality

Formal organization

Key Assumptions & Principles 9. Rationality in decision making promotes efficiency 10.Formal organization can be designed to maximize efficiency

Historical Roots
Human Relations
Focus: Individual Needs

Contemporary Systems Perspectives


Natural Systems Perspectives

Time Frame: 1930 -1960 Pioneers: Follet Mayo Rothlisberger McGregor

Focus: Informal Organization, , Organizational Culture, & Natural Groupings Time Frame: Contemporary

Concepts Survival Needs Individuals

Assumptions & Principles 1. Organizations are primarily social groups adapting & surviving 2. Individual needs are the primary motivators of organizational performance 3. Individuals are more important than structure in achieving effectiveness 4. Individuals organize themselves informally on basis of interests

Social Structure

Concepts

Assumptions & Principles 5. Unofficial norms & procedures are often more important than formal ones 6. Shared decision making promotes effectiveness 7. A broad span of control enhances teacher autonomy & effectiveness

Informal norms

Empowerment

Broad span of control

Concepts Culture

Assumptions & Principles 8. Organizational culture mediates the effects of structure 9. Teamwork is the key to organizational success 10. Informal structures are more important than formal ones

Teams

Informal organization

Historical Roots
Social Science Focus: Integration

Contemporary Systems Perspectives


Open Systems Perspectives

Time Frame: 1960 present Pioneers: Weber, Barnard, Simon, Parsons, Weick, Katz & Kahn

Focus: Interdependence , Integration, & Contingencies Time Frame: Contemporary

Key Concepts

Key Assumptions & principles

Interdependence of the organization & its environment Integration of organizational goals and human needs

1. All organizations are open systems that intact with their environment 2. Organizational behavior i s a function of the interaction of organizational structure & individual needs

Key Concepts

Key Assumptions & principles

Inter Integration of organizational goals and human needs

1. All organizations are open systems that intact with their environment 2. Organizational behavior i s a function of the interaction of organizational structure & individual needs

Key Concepts

Key Assumptions & principles

Interdependence of the organization and its environment Integration of organizational goals and human needs

1. All organizations are open systems that intact with their environment 2. Organizational behavior i s a function of the interaction of organizational structure & individual needs

Key Concepts

Key Assumptions & principles

Integration of rational & natural features


Integration of tight & loose couplings Integration of planned & unplanned activities

3. All organizations have both rational and natural features 4. Organizations need both loose and tight couplings to succeed 5. Politics pervades organizational life

Key Concepts

Key Assumptions & principles

Integration of formal and informal perspectives


Contingency theory,

6. Organizations have two interactive faces: a formal and informal 7. There is no one best way to organize, to motivate, to decide, to lead, or to communicate the effectiveness of such processes is contingent upon a variety of circumstances

Open System with Feedback Loop


Environment Inputs People, Transformation Process Materials Finances
Outputs

Products Services