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Principle 1 - Proximity
up all the space on a page is not a design goal. Proximity is the concept of grouping related items together. Unrelated items should not be close to other elements, so as to give visual cues that they are not related.
of the idea of using proximity first is grouping text into blocks Creates visual units that you can manipulate just like graphics, lines, etc. Place groups of text in their own text boxes! Can then apply the other principles
How many separate elements do you see on the page? .Using Space to Relate Look at the layout below.
none of these items appear related How might we reorganize these items? .Using Space to Relate Bringing items together creates a relationship.
Using Space to Relate When items are close to one another. they become one visual unit instead of separate units on a page How might we reorganize these items? .
Size Matters Don‟t be afraid to change the size of text Shrink secondary information Can even shrink all the way down to 7 or 8 point Examples: Volume # & year of a magazine Blow up Headlines Change the placement of text. etc . right. too! Re-alignment to center.
just those things that are related.We‟re Not All Close Proximity doesn‟t mean making everything closer together. Spacing between groups of items shows a unity or difference between them .
We‟re Not All Close How does the spacing change the meaning of the „Post Season‟ category? .
. Dead Space White space is space left intentionally blank to create a dramatic effect Dead space is simply empty pockets of space without a real purpose The same spacing throughout this makes it hard to read/find info quickly.White Space vs.
you should always start with proximity! Apply the principles ONE AT A TIME! .It‟s Nothing New… Proximity is all about doing what you already do naturally Grouping like items The trick is to do it better. and be more conscious of what you are doing Rarely is it the sole key to fixing a design But.
Some Tips for Proximity Try dropping a font size or changing ALL CAPS TO Upper and Lower Case Usually never lower than 7 point fonts Change to a less space-consuming font .
Create a relationship! Creating relationships between unrelated elements . etc.Avoid This! Putting things in the corners and middle Putting equal amounts of white space between all elements. when they are part of different groupings Creating confusion about whether a headline. actually belongs with material. graphic. caption.
Proper use of proximity creates more appealing white space (a designer‟s best friend!) . but grouping automatically creates organization. The purpose of proximity is to organize. Organized info is more likely read. they become one visual unit. and more likely remembered. Other elements can help.Wrap it Up When items are in proximity to one another.
Alignment .Principles of Graphic Design Principle 2 .
So what does “arbitrarily” mean? “Without a reason” . Every item should have a visual connection with something else on the page.What is Alignment? Nothing should be placed on the page arbitrarily.
What is Alignment? Cont‟d.
aligned on pages work together as a unit much better. Invisible lines connect them, both in eye and mind
A vertical edge
Why Proximity (again???)?
the groups of text in their own boxes, they are much easier to align No more space bar/tab! The more boxes for each group, the merrier! How could we break each game up even more?
Separate dates and games
You never liked the middle back seat, did you?
centering everything is very common and feels comfortable But, it is very, formal, tired and dull Hard to let go of, but key in design
Just like training wheels, you have to eventually let go…
tired.Not always bad… Some things are meant to be centered.dull So what kinds of designs might be centered? Wedding/graduation announcements Church events Anything to do with this class (just kidding) . What kind of look did we say it gave things? Formal.
Elements of Design Are such a lovely thing. and see how it is aligned within the box Aligned right on the page. Wouldn’t you agree? .Not always bad… Text has two different alignments Its position with regard to the page Its position with regard to itself As if you draw an invisible box around the text. but aligned left on itself. I say.
Better. but then placing it off center on the page Text centered on invisible line This is called uncentering Boring.Centrally Uncentered A useful compromise is centering the type on an invisible line. .
Alignment Types This text is flush left. . This simply refers to what we usually call text that is right aligned or quad right. The left edges of all the lines match up evenly. This simply refers to what we usually call text that is left aligned or quad left. This text is flush right. The right edges of all the lines match up evenly.
Alignment Types II This text is centered. Neither edge will manage to line up evenly when you center-align. If you‟re going to use a center alignment. DO NOT USE IT unless your line length is long enough to avoid awkward spaces on a line. Refer to it as quad left AND right or blocked. This text is justified. make it obvious. .
align the baselines of blocks of text or graphics that are horizontal from each other. What is a baseline? Could proximity use some help here? Align these baselines! .Line it up! For example.
See how many alignments show up! . The lack of a common left edge (thanks to the indent) makes the headline look uncentered. Draw imaginary lines on each column edge. The centered image is also very awkward.Leave it left Never center a headline over flush left text that is indented.
which is what a tab does) when typing narrow columns in a newsletter. Adjust the ragged right edges to smooth them out as much as possible. .Rules of the game Indent more like two spaces (instead of five.
Find it (a strong line) and use it! Left aligning the caption beneath the photo is a good idea. . too.
” ~Yoda The alignment was broken here to emphasize/ make a point. quality look. you can break through them and give it an intentional. The rule about breaking rules: to break it. However. you must first know it! Alignment Broken! “Do or do not. . do it big! Don‟t make weak little breaks in the rules. if you‟re going to do it. There is no try.Made to be Broken If your alignments are strong.
Summary Nothing should be positioned on a page arbitrarily (without a reason). Unity is important in designs. Alignment creates visual connections b/w elements. Unify through aligning. formal looks. . It is the purpose of alignment. Avoid multiple alignments on one page Choose centered alignments only for traditional.
Principles of Graphic Design Principle 3 – Repetition .
thick rules What is a rule? A designer‟s term for a “line” .What is Repetition? Repeating some aspect of the design throughout the entire piece/publication Things you would repeat include using bold fonts. bullets for lists.
it‟s about unifying all parts of a design. you need to take your awareness a step further Also use more pronounced repetition to give works an even greater visual appeal Repetition is Consistency But more importantly. like proximity.It comes naturally Like proximity. you already use a lot of repetition in your work But. .
Don‟t let go! Adding bold type on second visual unit makes the reader‟s eyes jump back and forth between the top and bottom elements Before After .
Make Good Better Take a good effect and improve it Changing up headlines and subheadlines is a good place to start creating repetition .
it looks more organized .Make Good Better By changing this newsletter‟s heads to a Sans Serif font and increasing the size and boldness. it increases the impact In turn.
to tie together a business package person getting your letter know you‟re who gave them a business card last week Create an element in letterhead that will align with your printed letter! Business Card Lets Envelope NOTE: . etc. envelopes. business cards.Letterhead A consistent look Use the same elements on letterhead.
Something Borrowed. colors. but you can repeat that new element to unify them! Called “repetition through variety” . angles You won‟t have to repeat the exact design on other works. give it a try in your design! Add it simply for creating more repetition GOOD SUGGESTION: Use that new element in a variety of sizes. Something New If you come across something new and interesting.
Staying Connected Having a design element cross borders will unify two different pieces For example. opposing pages in a magazine .
Change it Up Use existing elements in creative ways Example: the Dot theme from Mom and Pop bakery Two dots were enlarged and used to encircle „Mom‟ and „Pop‟ .
nobody will recognize part of your graphic. much less all of it! . though. partial graphic is a good way to vary design Our minds „fill in the gaps‟ If your business and logo are new.Just a Hint… Using a large.
Tie it Together Repetition across designs for a common event will project professionalism to those around you Lets them know you are in charge/on top of things when it comes to design Note the common fonts/graphics between the envelope (top) and letter .
Contrast .Principles of Graphic Design Principle 4 .
Either make things the same or different.What is Contrast? Contrast is created when elements on a page are different How are contrasting elements different from conflicting elements? Contrasting elements are very different. . conflicting elements are somewhat different Remember that rule from the first section? Similar is not okay.
vertical vs. bold vs. regular graphics vs. small. small graphics Line Thick Fonts Large Space Large . Thin. horizontal vs.How is it created? What are some examples of contrast with the following elements? Color Warm versus cool: Examp = complementary! vs.
wide column across top of text: wide vs.Example of Contrast Columns Single. narrow Multiple narrow columns across bottom .
Designing pages is not about simply inserting content and choosing . we will be applying these principles to our work. we will be applying these principles to our work.Do this. not that Choose fonts for headings that are noticeably larger/stronger than body text Good: 24-point text contrasting with 12-point text Example: Now that we are entering into the principles of design. Designing pages is not about Bad: 14-point text contrasting with 12-point text Example: Now that we are entering into the principles of design.
Quick Question Which of the two color schemes best represents contrast? Analogous X Side by side colors on color wheel aren’t that different! Split complementary Does a 3-point rule or a 5-point rule better contrast a 1-point rule? We‟re not talking sports here… NOTE: „Point‟ – small unit of measure in the design world: 72 points per inch – just know that it is a very small measurement .
Which interests you more? More CONTRAST! .
how did he mess up with the alignment? . gaining necessary information quickly is key Readers should be able to glance at a document and in a fraction of a second know what it is about.Contrast is Crucial In our hectic world. Also.
.Contrast is Crucial Readers should be able to glance at a document and in a fraction of a second know what it is about.
It‟s not all in the words Using “Rules” can create contrast Be sure that rules between groups are thicker than rules between group items Good. . Better.
create some broad columns across the top for good contrast What principle is demonstrated by the columns? Repetition .Back to Contrast in Columns When using narrow columns for your body text.
What is wrong with this? Proximity Alignment Poorly used repetition CONTRAST .
Simple Changes. Big Results Making some text smaller is okay. because readers will read it once you pull them in with the larger headline .
after all. it‟s selling a book! Repetition of the black on the book .Can you name 3 ways contrast was added? Headline – Upper to mixed case and bolded Book graphic emphasized.
Contrast‟s Ties to Repetition Previously. Any suggestions? . This flyer repeats the blue hue. we talked about repeating with variety. but does so in a dull way.
Arial. but it‟s really the same content applied in a much more thought out fashion Suggestions: Start picking fonts other than Calibri. Comic Sans and Times New Roman Forget centered alignments… for now Find the one or two most interesting elements on a page and emphasize them! Think through how you group your text/elements! .Contrast‟s Ties to Repetition This ad looks very different from the original.
One Simple Change… Can add so much contrast! Try those inverted backgrounds! (putting a darker color in the background. with lighter heading text .
Summary Contrast on a page draws our eyes in and makes us want to read it. or you want it different for some variety The purpose of contrast is to create interest Helps proximity to create an organization and flow of information to the reader Should never confuse the reader . our eyes like contrast! Same or different… don‟t make things similar! Think of it like touch-up paint… you either want it the same for a nice even look.
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