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Lines of Magnetic Flux

Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux


What is Direction of magnetic flux? Answer: The direction of a magnetic flux line at any point in a non-magnetic field, such as air, is that of the NORTH-SEEKING pole of a compass needle. This is because of earths ,magnetic field.
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Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux

Each magnetic flux line forms a closed loop.

Lines of magnetic flux never intersect.

Characteristics of lines of magnetic flux


Lines of magnetic flux are like stretched cords, always trying to shorten themselves.
Lines of magnetic flux which are in parallel in the same direction repel each other.

Characteristics of Electro Magnetism


First discovery was made by Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted in the year 1820. He discovered that,

A piece of wire carrying electric current behaves as a magnet or The electric current flowing in a wire can produce magnetic field in the space surrounding the wire

Origin of Electromagnetism

Characteristics of Electro Magnetism


If a coil is wound on a steel rod and if current is passed through the coil, then the steel rod behaves like a magnet. This rod with coil is known as Solenoid. If the solenoid is gripped with right hand, with the fingers pointing the direction of current, then the thumb indicates the NORTH POLE of that magnet. Can we use wooden rod in place of steel?
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A Solenoid

.. is a closely wound coil having n turns per unit length.

current flows into plane

current flows out of plane

What direction is the magnetic field?


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Toroidal core with winding of N turns

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Leakage Flux The flux established along paths that lie mostly in air is very small compared to the core flux as core has a permeability r times that or air. This flux is called leakage flux, i.e. it Ieaks through the core.

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Definition of Current

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PERMEABILITY OF FREE SPACE OR MAGNETIC CONSTANT


Let i1 is 1 (A). Let i2 is 1 (A). Let r is 1 (m). Then: MMF (F) = 1 (At) H = 1/2 (At/m) Force on elemental conductor = B Il = B (N) By Ampere definition: F = 2 X 10-7 B (Tesla) = 2 X 10-7

r=1m

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PERMEABILITY OF FREE SPACE OR MAGNETIC CONSTANT

The ratio of B/H is termed as the PERMEABILITY OF FREE SPACE AND IS REPRESENTED BY 0.
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Relative Permeability

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Relative Permeability
For Magnetic Materials B = 0 r H For Non-magnetic Materials B = 0 H
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RESISTANCE Vs RELUCTANCE
From Ohms law:
Resistance limits the current
Similarly:

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RELUCTANCE

This expression is similar to


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S3
S2 Sg S2 S1

Electrical Equivalent Circuit

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Sa= Sb = S2+2S3

(Kirchhoffs current law)

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Use Super-position method


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(Iron, Steel, Cobalt, Nickel ---)

(Aluminium, Platinum, Manganese --- )

(Zinc, Copper, Mercury, Lead ---) 28

Iron and its alloys

Cobalt steel, Carbon steel etc.

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B-H Characteristics
The B-H relationship for cyclic H is the hysteresis loop The tip of the loop corresponds to the maximum H of the cyclic variation. Three hysteresis loops are indicated in this figure.

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Ferrite cores
A ferrite material known as magnetic ceramic has a square hysteresis loop which is substantially magnetically bi-stable Square-loop materials are used in switching circuits, as storage elements in computers and in special type of transformers in electronic circuits. A small change magnetic force H caused full reversal of the flux density from +B to B, and vice versa. This can be recognized as I/O switching in computing circuit They are extensively used in power electronics.
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or

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Because of Mutual inductance

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Single core with two coils

Because of Mutual inductance


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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE If 12 are the flux linkages in coil 1 by i2 current of coil 2, then:

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Induced e.m.f in coil 1 by current change in coil 2 is:


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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

There exists four inductances if both coils carry current, they are:
Self inductance L1 of coil 1 because of current I1. Self inductance L2 of coil 2 because of current I2. Mutual inductance M12 of coil 1 because of current I2. Mutual inductance M21 of coil 2 because of current I1.
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Mutual Inductance
Energy because of current I1 in coil 1 of 1 inductance L1 is 1 1 2.
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Energy because of current I2in coil 2 of 1 inductance L2is 2 2 2.


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In this condition if we want to change the current in coil 2, the flux in the core tries to change, as per Lenzs law the system tries to oppose by reducing necessary current in coil 1 and thus coil 1 pump back some power into its source.
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Similarly if we want to change the current in coil 1, coil 2 will draw extra current from its source. In that case also the total energy absorbed by the core is: +
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If the current change amplitude is same then: + = + Or = Or = = Which is the MUTUAL INDUCTANCE of core with two coils
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Mutual Inductance

= =

= = = = = = = = =

= =
So: =
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Assumptions we made till now are: a. No Leakage Flux

b. Magnetic core is having a linear B-H curve. (This will be correct only if we consider non-magnetic core or core with an air-gap)
c. Tight coupling between coil 1 and coil 2.

In practice it is not possible so we add a factor called COUPLING FACTOR (k) in the equation. =
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Use Super-position method


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Sa= Sb = S2+2S3

(Kirchhoffs current law)

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S3
S2 Sg S2 S1

Electrical Equivalent Circuit

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RELUCTANCE

This expression is similar to


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RESISTANCE Vs RELUCTANCE
From Ohms law:
Resistance limits the current
Similarly:

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MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

There exists four inductances if both coils carry current, they are:
Self inductance L1 of coil 1 because of current I1. Self inductance L2 of coil 2 because of current I2. Mutual inductance M12 of coil 1 because of current I2. Mutual inductance M21 of coil 2 because of current I1.
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In this case total Inductance L is: = +


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Problem 1
A ferromagnetic ring of cross-section area 800mm2 and of mean radius 170 mm has two windings connected in series, one of 500 turns and one of 700 turns. If the relative permeability is 1200, calculate the selfinductance of each coil and the mutual inductance of each assuming that there is no flux leakage.
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Solution:

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Eddy-Current Loss

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Hysteresis Loss

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