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Haemoglobin carries oxygen Information transfer: For example. hormones. ions. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood .Proteins play key roles in a living system Three examples of protein functions Catalysis: Almost all chemical reactions in a living cell are catalyzed by protein enzymes. and so on. Alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes alcohols to aldehydes or ketones Transport: Some proteins transports various substances. such as oxygen.
determin the COO properties of 20 Carboxylic acid group amino acids. An amino acid .R.Amino acid: Basic unit of protein R Amino group NH3 + C H Different side chains. .
20 Amino acids Glycine (G) Alanine (A) Valine (V) Isoleucine (I) Leucine (L) Proline (P) Methionine (M) Phenylalanine (F) Tryptophan (W) Asparagine (N) Glutamine (Q) Serine (S) Threonine (T) Tyrosine (Y) Cysteine (C) Asparatic acid (D) Glutamic acid (E) Lysine (K) Arginine (R) Histidine (H) White: Hydrophobic. Green: Hydrophilic. Red: Acidic. Blue: Basic .
Proteins are linear polymers of amino acids R1 R2 NH3＋ C COO ＋ NH3＋ C COO ＋ ー ー H H A carboxylic acid H 2O H2 O R1 H A R2 Peptide bond S R3 Peptide bond condenses with an amino group with the release of a water NH3＋ C CO NH C CO NH C CO H T D H A F G N K G S The amino acid sequence is called as primary structure .
Amino acid sequence is encoded by DNA base sequence in a gene DNA molecule ・ G C G C T T A A G C G C ・ ・ DNA base C G sequence C G A A T T C G C G ・ ＝ .
Amino acid sequence is encoded by DNA base sequence in a gene T T TTT TTC TTA TTG CTT CTC CTA CTG ATT ATC ATA ATG GTT GTC GTA GTG Phe Leu C TCT TCC TCA TCG CCT CCC CCA CCG ACT ACC ACA ACG GCT GCC GCA GCG Second letter A Ser TAT TAC TAA TAG CAT CAC CAA CAG AAT AAC AAA AAG GAT GAC GAA GAG Tyr Stop His Gln Asn Lys Asp Glu G TGT TGC TGA TGG CGT CGC CGA CGG AGT AGC AGA AGG GGT GGC GGA GGG Cys Stop Trp Arg T C A G T C A G T C A G T C A G Third letter C Leu Pro First letter A Ile Met Val Ser Arg Thr G Ala Gly .
genome is life’s blueprint DNA Gene Protein .Gene is protein’s blueprint.
Each Protein has a unique structure Amino acid sequence NLKTEWPELVGKSVEE AKKVILQDKPEAQIIVL PVGTIVTMEYRIDRVR LFVDKLDNIAEVPRVG Folding! .
.Basic structural units of proteins: Secondary structure α-helix β-sheet Secondary structures. α-helix and β-sheet. have regular hydrogen-bonding patterns.
Three-dimensional structure of proteins Tertiary structure Quaternary structure .
β-sheet） ↓ Tertiary structure （Three-dimensional structure formed by assembly of secondary structures） ↓ Quaternary structure （Structure formed by more than one polypeptide chains） .Hierarchical nature of protein structure Primary structure (Amino acid sequence) ↓ Secondary structure （α-helix.
Close relationship between protein structure and its function Example of enzyme reaction substrates enzyme Hormone receptor Antibody A B enzyme Matching the shape to A enzyme Digestion of A! A Binding to A .