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Mansoura university Faculty of Engineering Electrical Power & Machine Dept.



Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Hassan Dr. Magdi El-Saadawi

Project Team: 1. Akram Abd El-Hady El-khawaga 2. Ahmed Zahran El-Metwally 3. Sinar Kamal Shebl 4. Ebtisam Amin El-Sherbiny 5. Ahmed Shabana El-Saigh 6. Ashraf Mohamed Nabieh Zid 7. Wesam El-Din Mostapha Mohamed 8. Azhar Mansour Abd El-khalek 9. Ahmed Mostafa Mostafa


1. POWER SYSTEM RESTORATION: The main objective of the restoration problem. The problem : minimizing the amount of un-served loads with some constraints.

2. Ant Colony Optimization:

ACO inspired by the observation of the behaviors of real ant colonies. The merits of ACO are parallel search and optimization capabilities.

Overview on the project:

Modern society has become increasingly dependent on electricity.

The power system restoration process commonly consists of two main sequential steps:-

1. 2.

First :system configuration. (feasible configurations) Second :switching operations achieve configuration in the first step. radial systems is easy.
A colony of artificial ants cooperates to find good solutions.


2.1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Reassembling the elements of power system. Restoration information. Factors affecting restoration. Restoration problems. 2.1.2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE: Developed expert system. Restoration strategy. Topology of network and behavior of power system.

2.1.3. Power System Restoration Problem Formulation: Power system restoration approaches. Switching scenario. Power system restoration objectives. Constrains. 2.1.4. Power System Restoration Methodologies:

Automated restoration. Computer aided restoration. Cooperative restoration.

Restoration of Bulk Power Systems: Main power system restoration issues:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Reactive power balance. Load & generation balance. Fault location. Phase angles. Intentional islanding. Interconnection assistance. Black-start units.

Restoration Stages:
Stage one: ( preparation) 30 60 minutes Time is critical, and many urgent actions must be taken as rapidly as possible. The post-disturbance system status is evaluated, a strategy for rebuilding, and steps are taken to restart generation.
Stage two: ( system restoration ) 3 4 hours Energization of high voltage lines. Synchronization of islands. on line analysis.

Stage three: ( load restoration ) load is restored as rapidly as possible.

12 hours

objective of system restoration is the minimization of unserved area.

Constraints in Power System Restoration:

Physical constraints: They involve the thermodynamic, mechanical and electromagnetic behavior of system components in response to control actions. Scheduling constraints: They include manpower availability both in plants for restart operations, and in the field for switching operations. Policy constraints: They will include giving priority to obviously critical loads, such as hospitals, traffic control, etc.

3. Ant Colony System

ACO is a Meta-Heuristic Algorithm enhance the conversion of the try and error method. The field of ant algorithms studies models derived from the observation of real ants behaviour.

Double Bridge Experiments.

Artificial Ants and Minimum Cost Paths :

Analogy to the shortest-pathfinding behaviour of real ants, we will also call them nest and food source. The ants, while building a solution, may generate loops. Loops tend to become more and more attractive and ants can get trapped in them.

Simple ACO

Transition Probability: Removing Loops :

Pheromone Update:

4. The Implementation With ACO

How We Make The Implementation between PSR and ACO:

Find The Restoration Plane How do we get this data? SCADA and EMS

Test Case Description

The inputs we need : 1. Switching Sequence Code 1 2 3 4

Element G1 + Tr1 G2 + Tr2 G3 + Tr3 TL46

2. Power Flow Inputs:

Generation Data. Bus Data. Branch Data. Generation Cost Data. Our constrain (power flow Analysis). load flow software called matpower3.0b3 was used. This load flow program uses the Newton-Raphson Method.

Enhancement of the code performance by using series pheromone update

5. Results & Discussion

It is obvious that both generation unit and step up transformer need to be restored simultaneously.

Discussion of Results :
Once the restoration process finished, all loads were served at 100%. Several runs were performed giving similar results where the restoration path remains identical. Some control variables barely change but do not affect the general objective of the approach.

The main contributions of this research:

Review on power system restoration techniques. A new technique of using of ant colony optimization algorithm in power system restoration. switching sequence program allows the proposed power system restoration scheme to energize high priority loads first. A data base for the Nine Bus transmission system with the final restoration configurations.

Future Work :
1. 2.

Implement a graphical user interface. Consider applications and tests on larger systems with different characteristics. Create real-time application software for EMS systems.

It is concluded that the ant colony algorithm power system restoration scheme is a fast and a reliable technique that can assist system operators following the occurrence of a system blackout.