Application of Nano robots in medicine

Presented by: Shilpa verma B.Tech (biotechnology) Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women s University, Jaipur

Introduction
‡ Nanorobotics technology machines or is field the of robots emerging creating whose

components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10 9 meters). ‡ Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens.

‡ Using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. . ± of relieving pain. and preventing disease and traumatic injury . ‡ Nanomedicine is the process of ± diagnosing. and ± of preserving and improving human health.NANOMEDICINE ‡ The application of nanotechnology to the field of medicine is commonly called as Nanomedicine. treating.

Types of Nanorobots Various forms of nanorobots are used in different field.Nanorobots Artificial Phagocytes. . ‡Chromallocyte .An Artificial Oxygen Carrier Nanorobot. ‡Microbivores . but in medical field we use only three main types of Nanorobots: ‡ Respirocyte .Mobile Cell-Repair Nanorobot.

. knives and chisels ± To remove blockages and plaque. ± They might also need a device to crush clots into very small pieces. doctors need methods that will kill a cell without rupturing it. doses injury of or ‡ Probes. ‡ Electrodes ± Two electrodes protruding from the nanorobot could kill cancer cells by generating an electric current. a nanorobot will need something to grab and break down material. ‡ Microwave emitters and ultrasonic signal generators ± To destroy cancerous cells. The robot could release medication directly to the site of infection.Components of nanorobots ‡ Medicine cavity ± ± A hollow section inside the nanorobot might hold small medicine or chemicals. ± A ruptured cancer cell might release chemicals that could cause the cancer to spread further. heating the cell up until it dies.

‡ Power generation would be a result of the Seebeck effect. but there would need to be a gradient of temperatures to manage it. .Powering of nanorobots ‡ A nanorobot could use the patient's body heat to create power.

a nanorobot estimates the conc gradient and moves toward higher conc until it reaches the target. .Mechanism of action of nanorobots ‡ The scientists used the nanorobots small Brownian motions to find the target by random search. which others use as an additional guiding signal to the target. only nanorobots passing within a few microns of the target are likely to detect the signal. ‡ Nanorobots at the target release another chemical. ‡ The nanorobots monitor for chemical conc significantly above the background level. ‡ After detecting the signal. With these signal concentrations.

Applications ‡ To cure skin diseases ‡ augment the immune system ‡ Devices working in the bloodstream ‡ Surgical aids ‡ new drug delivery solutions ‡ Implantable devices ‡ Diagnostic tools ‡ Repairing neurons ‡ Killing cancer cells ‡ Regenerating Tissues ‡ Super human powers .

‡ The cream could be a smart material with smooth-on. ± add missing oils. ± apply the right amounts of natural moisturising compounds. . and ± even achieve the elusive goal of 'deep pore cleaning' . a cream containing nanorobots may be used: ± It could remove the right amount of dead skin. ± remove excess oils.Cure skin diseases ‡ To cure skin diseases. peeloff convenience.

it can be punctured. letting its contents spill out and ending its effectiveness. . ± If the contents were known to be hazardous by themselves. ± When an invader is identified.Augment the immune system ‡ Medical nanodevices could augment the immune system by: ± finding and disabling unwanted bacteria and viruses. then the immune machine could hold on to it long enough to dismantle it more completely.

± This would prevent most heart attacks. ± restore artery walls and artery linings to health. ± widening the affected blood vessels.Working in the bloodstream ‡ Devices working in bloodstream could: the ± nibble away at arteriosclerotic deposits. .

± monitor physiological and biomechanical parameters more accurately. Operating Tools: Medical devices that contain nano and micro technologies will allow surgeons to: ± perform familiar tasks with greater precision and safety. . and ± perform new tasks that are not currently done. Surgical Robotics: Robotic surgical systems are being developed to provide surgeons with unprecedented control over precision instruments. 2.Surgical aids 1.

2.New drug delivery solutions Nanotechnology can offer new drug delivery solutions in the following areas: 1.Nanotechnology offers interesting solutions is in the area of nanomaterjals that carry drugs to their destination sites and also have functional properties.Drug encapsulation materials include: ± liposomes and polymers (i.e. . Drug Encapsulation. Functional Drug Carriers. Polylactide (PLA) and ± Lactide-co-Glycolide (PLGA)) which are used as microscale particles.

Implantable devices Nanotechnology can new offer new implantable and/or wearable sensing technologies that provide continuous and extremely accurate medical information. e. .g. Retina Implants: Retinal implants are in development to restore vision by electrically stimulating functional neurons in the retina. Cochlear Implants: A new generation of smaller and more powerful cochlear implants are intended to be more precise and offer greater sound quality. 2. 1.

Diagnostic tools 1. 2. and ± treatment-linked disease diagnostics products.Several new technologies are being developed to: ± improve the ability to label and ± detect unknown target genes. Genetic Testing. .Nano and micro technologies provide new solutions for: ± increasing the speed and accuracy of identifying genes and genetic materials for drug discovery and development. Ultra-sensitive Labeling and Detection Technologies.

.Repairing neurons Application of magnetic nanotubes is a new way for treating and curing neurodegenerative diseases such as: ± Alzheimer s disease and ± Parkinson s disease.

‡ Cancer patients are usually anemic. so boosting systemic oxygenation levels into the normal range using respirocytes might improve prognosis and treatment outcome. ± after that a second nanocell is send to cancerous cells which kills it chemotherapy drugs. ± therapy to combat cancer using bacterially derived nano cell that helps to penetrate and disarm the cancerous cells.Killing cancer cells ‡ It can be done with the help of a new method called trojan horse therapy. ‡ X-rays and many chemotherapeutic agents require oxygen to be maximally cytoxic. .

‡ Nanobots can be injected into our body and these nanobots will be capable of repairing damaged and old tissues.Regenerating Tissues ‡ Nanotechnology will be assisting the new anti aging drive. .

Super human powers Nanobots fused with quantum computers will be intelligent enough to alter chemicals in our body which can manipulate our functions to convert our self into powerful human ! .

malarial parasites or AIDS. venereal disease. . ‡ storable indefinitely and readily available with no need for cross-matching.Transfusions & Perfusions ‡ Respirocytes may be used as the active oxygen-carrying component of a universally transfusable blood substitute that is free of disease vectors such as: ± ± ± ± hepatitis.

Treatment of Anemia ‡ Oxygenating respirocytes offer complete or partial symptomatic treatment for virtually all forms of anemia. .

± neonatal hemolytic disease.Fetal and Child-Related Disorders Respirocytes may be useful in perinatal medicine. . as for example infusions of device suspension to treat: ± fetal anemia (erythroblastosis fetalis).

hypoxia. hemotoxic (pit viper) neurotoxic (coral) snake bites. strokes. stress polycythemia and lung disorders.. ‡ Respirocytes could also be used to treat conditions of: ± ± ± ± low oxygen availability to nerve tissue advanced atherosclerotic narrowing of arteries. . diseased or injured reticular formation in the medulla oblongata (controlling autonomic respiration).Respiratory Diseases ‡ The devices could provide an effective longterm drug-free symptomatic treatment for: ± ± ± ± ± ± asthma.

± coronary angioplasty.Cardiovascular and Neurovascular Applications Respirocyte perfusion could be useful in ± maintaining tissue oxygenation during anesthesia. . ± siamese-twin separation. ± other aggressive heart and brain surgical procedures. ± in postsurgical cardiac function recovery. ± organ transplantation. and ± in cardiopulmonary bypass solutions.

.Mouthwash A mouthwash full of smart nanomachines could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of the mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem.

± virtually all medical pain and suffering. . ± allow extension of human capabilities.Future of the nanorobots ‡ Nanomedicine will: ± eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century. especially our mental abilities.

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