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One of the great paradoxes of history is that the next hesitant advance of European civilization - the development of the first citystates - took place not on the fertile open central European

plains, but in a remote island to
the south of the Aegean Sea

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known as the Dark Ages. a people called the Dorians invaded from the north and spread down the west coast. • In about 1100 BC. . each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside.01_F • This was followed by a period of wars and invasions. In the period from 500-336 BC Greece was divided into small city states.

• Later came early farmers and the civilizations of the Minoan and Mycenaean kings. . emerged on Crete.01_F • While the glittering mounted warrior-princes of central Europe dissipated their creative energy in warfare. a highly cultured yet peaceful society. built on trade and an agricultural surplus.

based on Crete.01_F Pre-classical 7th-1st BCE Aegean art reached its peak 1650-1450 BCE First dominated by the Minoans. . Minoan civilization fell at the height of its influence.

the tentative use of bronze.PICTURES .CRETE ISLAND .–2200 B.C.3000 B.01_F Pre-classical 7th-1st BCE It is named for the legendary King Minos of Crete. The culture and development of MINOAN civilization can be divided into three periods The Bronze Age: Early Minoan (c.C. and the appearance of a hieroglyphic writing.) Early Minoan had a slow rise of the culture from a Neolithic state with the importation of metals. MINOAN PALACE .

01_F Middle Minoan (c. but the palace was rebuilt. and possibly an invasion. which argues the presence of Mycenaean Greeks. Toward the end of the period an earthquake. Fighting warrior .C.–1500 B.2200 B. destroyed Knossos. and metalworking reached their peak. a pictographic script was used. ceramics. ivory carving.) In the Middle Minoan period the great palaces appeared at Knossos and Phaestus.C. During this period there is evidence of a new script at Knossos. Minoan power extended across the Mediterranean.

C.–1000 B.C. probably as a result of an earthquake and subsequent invasion from the Mycenaean mainland. the cultural center of the Aegean passed to the Greek mainland. Late Minoan (c. The palace at Knossos was finally destroyed c.) Late Minoan period faded out in poverty and obscurity.1500 B.C.C. Minoan palace (Knossos) .1400 B.01_F Knossos was again destroyed c. After the final destruction of Knossos..1500 B.

01_F Knossos: Aerial of the Palace .

01_F Knossos: Ground Plan of Palace .

01_F The Throne Room as excavated .

01_F Plan of the Throne Room Suite .

01_F Knossos: Plan of the Domestic Apartments .

Mycenaean drew much of their cultural inspiration from the Minoans.1400 B.C..01_F The position of Minoan civilization was quickly inherited by the Mycenaeans Mycenaeans were the warriors who flourished in Greece from 1600 to 1200 BCE. After the violent destruction of Knossos c.C. . and much of the Minoan cultural tradition was transferred to the mainland. Mycenae achieved supremacy. The Mycenaean commercial empire and consequent cultural influence lasted from 1400 to 1200 B.

cyclopean quality of their masonry. complex fortifications and the massive.01_F Mycenae: Plan of the Site The great Mycenaean cities— Mycenae Tiryns Pylos Orchomenos Cities were noted for their heavy. .

preserved on numerous clay tablets from Pylos. Mycenaeans were bearded and wore armor in battle. Their written language. and Knossos. Unlike the Cretans. Mycenae.01_F Mycenaean palaces were built around great halls called megara rather than around an open space as in Crete. Mycenae. Mask of Agamemnon .

01_F The Fortifications (Lion Gate) The Lion Gate was built c. The fortification walls at Mycenae are best preserved along the northern side where they are up to 7. in the form of reliving triangle.5 metres thick stand nearly 12 metres high in places Citadels were entered via these type of monumental gate ways. 1250 BC. . It consists of two vertical stones carrying a vast lintels.

The door way closed by wooden double-doors decorated by bronze ornaments. .01_F The Fortifications (Lion Gate) On the lintel there are limestone relief work of two lions. The heads (now missing) were of a different material and fastened to the bodies by.

5m. Developed gradually from 1210-1220 BCE. It was the tallest dome in the world until the Pantheon. with an interior height of 13. Constructed around 1250 BCE. Treasuries of Atreus or Agamemnon The Treasure of Atreus or Treasury of Atreus is an impressive "tholos" tomb at Mycenae.01_F Most splendid monuments are the tholos or ‘beehive’ tombs. .

01_F The Elements in the plan The droman : A horizontal passageway The stomion : A deep entrance Additional burial chamber fronted by a door way The tholos : The principal round chamber Additional burial chamber opens off the tholos The stomion The tholos The droman .

Madeup of thirty-four circular courses of masonry. in diameter. The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons. In side maximum hight was 45 ft.01_F Droman : 20 ft wide. The tholos: The chamber was 47 ft6 in. Interior was probably decorated with metal and paints. The corbeled dome capped with a single stone. . 118 ft long.

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01_F Methods of walling Rectangular Inclined blocks Cyclopean Polyconal .

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