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1728 1871 1874 1914 1942 1947 Hand rotated instruments Foot Engine Electric engine Dental unit Diamond Cutting instruments Tungsten carbide 300 rpm 700 1000 5000 5000 10000

1955 1955

Ball bearing hand piece
Water turbine H P Belt driven angle HP

50000 150000

1961 1962 1994

Air Turbine Angle H P
Air turbine St H P Air bearing H P Contemporary air turbine HP

250000 800000 300000

Smaller head size
More torque control

Low noise level
Better chucking mechanism

Better cooling system
Most modern H P have fiber optic light at the cutting tip

Power of the beam and the extend to which the beam is absorbed determines the effect .OTHER DEVELOPMENTS LASER A crystal or gas is excited to emit light photons of characteristic wavelength that are amplified and filtered to make a coherent light beam.

LASER TYPES A Infra red CO2 Ho : YAG Long wave length Nd : YAG B C Visible Range Ultra violet He & Ne Visible wave length Short Xe F . Ar F Excimers Special U V wave length . Kr F. Xe Cl.

pressure angulation. surface composition and clearance angle . 5 mm distance ] . [ 60 To 90 with 3 .OTHER CUTTING DEVICES Air abrasion 1950 Arthur Black Contemporary Air Abrasion techniques rely on transfer of kinetic energy from a steam of powder particles on the surface of the tooth structure to fracture the surface layer resulting in roughness . Energy depends on the powder particles.

ROTARY INSTRUMENTS CHARACTERISTICS SPEED Rpm and also surface feet area of contact per unit time of the cutting tool with the work • • • • • ultra low low speed medium high high speed ultra high 300 3000 20000 45000 100000 to 3000 to 6000 to 45000 to 100000 and above .

PRESSURE Resultant of force and the surface area of the cutting tool in contact with the tooth . Force constant small tools require more pressure And vice versa . P = F/ A When pressure is constant more force required to cut Smaller area & vice versa.

Area of the tooth in contact with the tool Increase in any one of these increases heat . Pressure b. Max tolerable temperature 113 o F .HEAT PRODUCTION Directly proportional to a. RPM c.

VIBRATION Product of the equipment used and the speed Causes fatigue for operator . Amplitude is more harmful . and annoyance for patient . Amplitude & modulating frequency are responsible for vibration Low speed amplitude is large than frequency High speed frequency larger. wear of Instrument.

Vibrations are in different directions .000 RPM 1600 cycles Vibrations above 1300 is not perceptible .VIBRATION CNTD Vibration waves are 6000RPM vibrational measured in cycles wave 100 cycles / sec Most annoying to patient & operator 100.

FORCE REQUIRED Low speed High speed 2 to 1 lb 1 to 4 ounces force 5 lbs Ultra high speed .

the smell generated finally the time taken and .ANNOYANCE FACTOR Subjective reaction of the patient to tooth preparation pressure . vibration noise recorded through the bone heat .

OTHER FACTORS Patient reaction Operator fatigue Source of power .

FACTORS RELATED Vibration & Noise Coarseness of the bur.speed & size Small tool & high speed reduce vibration Heat & Smell Depends on the adequacy of lubrication .

INSTRUMENTS Discussed under 1 Hand piece DESIGN 2 headings Which holds the cutting tool 2 Cutting tool .


EVALUATION OF HANDPIECE FRICTION Moving parts have friction producing heat Reduced by ball bearings needle bearings or Resin bearings TORQUE On the rotating tool without reduction in Ability of the H P to resist lateral pressure speed or cutting efficiency . VIBRATION .

CUTTING TOOLS Effect cutting in 2 ways CUTTING ABRADING Burs Stones & Diamond .

BUR BUR is a minute milling unit with or flutes cutting edges Available in assorted sizes & shapes ISO has assigned a classification for bur which is globally accepted .

Length of bur d.Bur head diameter 534 014 . Type of shank 806 031 c.Color code in case of diamond f.Shape of bur head 019 168 e.I S O IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM a. Material of working part b.

a . a. friction Length Shape Colour code Bur head diameter - 804 031 019 168 534 014 . d. f. b. c. Steel TC Diomond Latch. e.

Cut from a steel blank with rotary cutter. Tempered to a VHN of 800 T C burs are made by powder metallurgy It is partial alloying TC powder is mixed with powdered Cobalt Under pressure in vacuum resulting in Partial alloying or sintering A blank is formed which is cut to shape V H N 1650 to 1700 .

DESIGN FEATURES OF BUR Bur tooth Face Back on the leading edge on the trailing edge .

RAKE ANGLE Angle formed by the face of the bur with the radial line Positive Negative Radial rake or Zero rake .

LAND The flat surface or plane immediately following the cutting edge CLEARANCE ANGLE Angle between the back and the work Primary clearance angle the angle the land will make with the work Secondary clearance angle between the back and the work When the back of the flute is curved the clearance angle is called Radial Clearance BLADE ANGLE angle between face & back FLUTE SPACE space between back and face .

So bends or fractures . So + ve is better suited for T C burs .CUTTING EFFICIENCY OF BUR RAKE ANGLE + ve efficient cutting than .ve Cut chips are larger in + ve smaller in . Reduce bulk of flute .ve Steel bur it is disadvantage .

CLEARANCE ANGLE If clearance angle is less back rubs with the work Resulting in frictional force and dulling of flutes Large clearance reduces chance of dulling .

wear more Fissure burs with straight flutes less heat than spirals due to larger chip removal Fewer flutes vibration more .NUMBER OF FLUTES Standard 6 or 8 Reduced flutes chip size removed is greater Chances of clogging less. Reduced by Ensuring 2 or more flutes in contact at a time .

023 mm Run out depends on the bur & the hand piece When run out exceeds the average value cutting is ineffective and operator exerts more force resulting in vibration and heat generation .RUN OUT Eccentricity or maximum displacement of the bur head from its axis of rotation while the bur turns Average accepted value is 0 .

Load . Design of flutes c.OTHER FEATURES a. Bur diameter Star & Revelation better in direct cutting forces on the bur tooth depends on the number of flutes and the rotational position and not on the diameter of the bur low speed 1000 gm or 2 lbs high speed 60 to 120 gm 2 to 4 ounce d. Heat treatment b.