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A Training Seminar On

taken at
132 K.V. G.S.S. CHAMBALPOWER HOUSE, SODALA,JAIPUR

SUBMITTED BY ASHISH JAIN GLOBAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR ashish302017@gmail.com


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Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Limited is started working from July 1957. RRVPNL is the organization of RSEB(Rajasthan State Electricity Board). The aim of RSEB is to supply electricity to entire Rajasthan State in the most economical way. RRVPNL has more than 350 GSS under it.
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Power line carrier communication is the method of communication over existing power line. The training is based on communication over existing power lines as well as power transfer between power stations. Power signal-50 HZ and Carrier signal-20 to 500 KHZ PLCC system uses the same High Voltage transmission line connecting two sub-stations for telecommunication purpose too. Communication is essential for proper handling of power station, speech transmission and power line protection

 Coupling capacitor is a high voltage capacitor that connected between power line and LMU.  Coupling capacitor blocks power signal entering into PLCC panel at the same time it allows to pass carrier signal, So its capacitance is kept in such ways that the value of 1/wc is negligible for power signals frequency and significant for carrier signal frequency.

ACTUAL VIEW

 Lightening Arrestor is used to protect the system from the damaging effect of lightning as well as any high voltage spikes from transmission line.  Since lightening strikes tends to strike the highest object in the structure, the lightening rod is placed at the apex of a tall structure. The typical lightning arrester has a high voltage terminal and a Ground terminal. It is connected to the ground by low-resistance cables. Whenever high voltage spikes strikes to the lightening arrestor ,it goes to ground through ground wire.

ACTUAL VIEW
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Circuit of Wave Trap

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Types of Mounting of Wave Trap

Horizontal

Vertical

suspension

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LINE MATCHING UNIT

LMU is connected between CC and PLCC panel. It is used for proper impedance matching between power line and PLCC panel.  Coaxial cable is used for interconnection between PLCC and LMU in order to avoid skin effect.
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PHASE TO GROUND COUPLING

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PHASE TO PHASE COUPLING

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y In phase to phase coupling requirement of CC, LMU and wave traps is two times of phase to ground. Hence phase to phase is more complex and expensive than phase to ground. y Reflections are much greater than in phase to ground. y Radiations effect is much greater than in phase to ground. y Signal to noise ratio is poor in phase to ground coupling. y Phase to ground coupling has higher attenuation unlike phase to phase coupling in which attenuation varies according station condition.
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EFFECT OF BAD WEATHER ON PLCC COMMUNICATION


Losses increase for all inclement weather conditions  The worst offender is when heavy frost is formed on the line because of the skin effect, the carrier signal tries to propagate on the ice instead of the conductor. The attenuation can change as much as 4:1 depending on the frequency.  The worst condition is a light rain with the presence of contaminants on the insulators

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Telephone network

Simplex method
Person can either listen or talk at a time. One carrier frequency is sent along transmission line. Simple in design, cheap

Duplex method
Person can listen and talk simultaneously. Two carrier frequencies are sent along transmission line. Complex in design, expensive.

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ADVANTAGES OF PLCC
 No separate wires are needed for communication purposes, as the power lined themselves carry power as well as communication signals. Hence the cost of constructing separate telephone lines is saved.  When compared with ordinary lines the power lines have appreciably higher mechanical strength. They would normally remain unaffected under the conditions, which might seriously damage telephone lines.  Power line has large cross-sectional areas resulting in very low resistance per unit length. Consequently the carries singles suffer much less attenuation than when they travel on usual telephone lines of equal lengths.  Power lines are well insulated to provide only negligible leakage between conductors and ground even in adverse weather conditions.  Largest spacing between conductors reduces capacitance, which results in smaller attenuation at high frequencies. The large spacing also reduces the cross talk to a considerable extension.
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