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**- PRESENTED BY JAY B.THAKAR M.TECH (POWER SYSTEM)
**

3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 11

OUTLINES

Resistor Inductor R – L series circuit Capacitor R – C series circuit R – L – C series circuit Impedance Phasor diagram

3/20/12

AVADHUTA TRIVEDI

22

WHAT IS RESISTOR?????

Click to edit Master subtitle style

3/20/12

AVADHUTA TRIVEDI

33

INTRODUCTION TO RESISTOR

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component

which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage.

When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a

The reciprocal of the constant of proportionality is

known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current.

AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 44

Resistors can be either fixed or variable in value.

3/20/12

Fixed resistors come in a variety of different shapes,

INTRODUCTION (CONTD….)

sizes and forms.

Resistors can be either fixed or variable in value Fixed resistors come in a variety of different shapes,

sizes and forms

Axial lead resistors have the value of resistance printed

on them or as a colour code a value

**Surface mount resistors have a numerical code indicating All resistors have a tolerance value.
**

3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI Ohm’s Law for a resistor, R, in an AC circuit 55

TYPES OF RESISTORS 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 66 .

MATERIALS INSIDE RESISTOR 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 77 .

The values of the colours are shown in Table on next slide Four band resistor colour code 1st band provides the first digit of the code 2nd band provides the second digit of the code 3rd band is the multiplier 4th band indicates the 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 88 .HOW TO CALCULATE THE VALUE OF RESISTORS??? The values of the resistor are calculated from the colour of the bands.

COLOUR CODE CHART 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 99 .

RESISTOR IN AN AC CIRCUIT Consider a circuit consisting of an AC source and a resistor current through and the voltage across the resistor voltage reach their maximum values at the same time AVADHUTA are said to be in TRIVEDI 1010 The graph shows the The current and the The current and the 3/20/12 voltage .

WHAT IS INDUCTOR????? Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1111 .

voltage is induced. a . Typically an inductor is a conducting wire shaped as a coil. measured by its inductance. according to 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.INTRODUCTION TO INDUCTOR An inductor or a is a passive electrical component that can store energy in a magnetic field created by the electric current passing through it. the loops help to create a strong magnetic field inside the coil due to Ampere's Law. in units of henries. which1212 by An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is Due to the time-varying magnetic field inside the coil.

due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. power supplies or to block AC signals from passing through a circuit.INTRODUCTION (CONTD…) Inductors are one of the basic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time. XL will be in ohms 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1313 . Inductors called chokes are used as parts of filters in The effective resistance of a coil in an AC circuit is called its inductive reactance and is given by XL = 2ƒL When ƒ is in Hz and L is in H.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUCTORS 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1414 .

BEHAVIOR OF AC CIRCUIT OF R-L SERIES CIRCUIT!!!!! Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1515 .

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & PHASOR DIAGRAMS & EQUATIONS 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1616 .

WAVEFORMS Consider an AC circuit with a source and an inductor The current in the circuit is impeded by the back EMF of the inductor inductor always leads the current by 90° 3/20/12 The voltage across the AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1717 .

WHAT IS CAPACITOR????? Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1818 .

INTRODUCTION TO CAPACITORS A basic capacitor has two parallel plates separated by an insulating material A capacitor stores an electrical charge between the two plates The unit of capacitance is Farads (F) Capacitance values are normally smaller. nF or pF 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 1919 . such as µF.

) Basic capacitor construction Plate 2 Dielectric material The dielectric material is an insulator therefore no current flows through the capacitor 2020 Plate 1 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI .INTRODUCTION (CONTD...

.INTRODUCTION (CONTD.) The function of capacitor is to Storing a charge between the plates Electrons on the left plate are attracted toward the positive terminal of the voltage source positively charged holes toward the right plate negative charge 3/20/12 + + _ _ This leaves an excess of The electrons are pushed Excess electrons leave a AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2121 + - ..

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TO CAPACITOR 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2222 .

BEHAVIOR OF AC CIRCUIT OF R-C SERIES CIRCUIT!!!!! Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2323 .

CAPACITORS IN AN AC CIRCUIT Consider a circuit containing a capacitor and an AC source The current starts out at a large value and charges the plates of the capacitor There is initially no resistance to hinder the flow of the current while the plates are not charged As the charge on the plates increases. the voltage across the plates increases and the current flowing in the circuit decreases The impeding effect of a capacitor on the current in an AC circuit is C called the capacitive reactance and is given by 1 X = 2 π ƒC 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2424 .

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & PHASOR DIAGRAMS & EQUATIONS 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2525 .

MORE ABOUT CAPACITORS IN AN AC CIRCUIT The current reverses direction The voltage across the plates decreases as the plates lose the charge they had accumulated capacitor lags behind the current by 90° The voltage across the 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2626 .

IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLES 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2727 .SUMMARY OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS.

BEHAVIOR OF AC CIRCUIT OF R-L-C SERIES CIRCUIT!!!!! Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2828 .

inductor. and capacitor can be combined in a circuit The current in the circuit is the same at any time and varies sinusoidally with time 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2929 .THE RLC SERIES CIRCUIT The resistor.

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIPS IN AN RLC CIRCUIT The instantaneous voltage across the resistor is in phase with the current The instantaneous voltage across the inductor leads the current by 90° across the capacitor lags the current by 90° 3/20/12 The instantaneous voltage AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 3030 .

PHASOR DIAGRAMS To account for the different phases of the voltage drops. vector techniques are used across each element as a rotating vector. called a phasor 3131 Represent the voltage 3/20/12 AVADHUTA The diagram is called a TRIVEDI .

PHASOR DIAGRAMS A phasor is an arrow whose length represents the amplitude of an AC voltage or current. edit Master subtitle style Resistor V p Capacitor I p ω t AVADHUTA TRIVEDI Inductor V p I p I p ω t 3/20/12 ω t 3232 V p . Phasor diagrams are useful in solving complex AC Click to circuits. The phasor rotates counterclockwise about the origin with the angular frequency of the AC quantity.

PHASOR DIAGRAMS Click to edit Master subtitle style Resistor V p Capacitor I p ω t AVADHUTA TRIVEDI Inductor V p I p I p ω t 3/20/12 ω t 3333 V p .REACTANCE .

• • Given: ε = ε m sin ωt Assume: i = i m sin(ωt − φ) ⇒ im Q = − cos( ωt − φ) ω di = i mω cos( ωt − φ) dt PHASO RS R C ε ∼ i mωL φ L VR = Ri = Ri m sin( ωt − φ) ⇒ Q 1 =− i m cos( ωt − φ) C ωC di VL = L = ωLi m cos( ωt − φ) dt VC = ω εm From these equations. This picture corresponds to a snapshot at t=0. The projections of these phasors along the vertical axis are the actual values of the voltages at the given time. 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI l ωC im φ φ i mR . we can draw the phasor diagram to the right.

Z. of a circuit relates peak current to peak voltage: V Ip = p Z (Units: OHMS) 3535 (This is the AC equivalent of 3/20/12 Ohm’s AVADHUTA TRIVEDI law.“Impedance” of an AC Circuit R ~ L C Click to edit Master subtitle style The impedance.) .

VC .VR .Impedance of an RLC Circuit R E ~ L C As in DC circuits.VL = 0 I is same through all components. 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 3636 . we can use the loop method: E .

they add as 3737 .VL = 0 I is same through all components.VR .Impedance of an RLC Circuit R E ~ L C As in DC circuits.VC . BUT: Voltages have different 3/20/12 PHASES AVADHUTA TRIVEDI PHASORS. we style Click to edit Master subtitle can use the loop method: E .

Impedance of an RLC Circuit R Solve for the current: ~ L C Vp Click I p = to edit Master subtitle style = Z R2 + (X c − X L )2 Vp 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 3838 .

Impedance of an RLC Circuit R Solve for the current: ~ L C Vp Click I p = to edit Master subtitle style = Z R2 + (X c − X L )2 Vp Impedanc e: 3/20/12 1 Z = R + − ωL ωC 2 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2 3939 .

When Z 1 2 Z= R + − ωL is a ωC minimum. the current is a Click to edit Master subtitle style maximum. I R = 10Ω L=1mH P C=10µ The current dies F R = 1 0 0 Ω 3/20/12 0 1 0 ωr 2 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4 5 ω away at both low and high 4040 .Impedance of an RLC Circuit Vp Ip = Z The current’s magnitude depends on 2 the driving frequency. The circuit hits resonance when 1/ωC-ωL=0: LC r=1/ ω This happens at a resonance When this happens the capacitor and inductor frequency: cancel each other and the circuit behaves purely resistively: IP=VP/R.

PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR RLC SERIES CIRCUIT The voltage across the resistor is on the +x axis since it is in phase with the current inductor is on the +y since it leads the current by 90° capacitor is on the –y axis since it lags behind the current by 90°AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 3/20/12 The voltage across the The voltage across the 4141 .

ΔVC 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4242 .PHASOR DIAGRAM (CONTD…) The phasors are added as vectors to account for the phase differences in the voltages ΔVL and ΔVC are on the same line and so the net y component is ΔVL .

Phasors for a Series RLC Circuit VL p (VCpVLp) VR p I p φ V P VC p Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4343 .

Phasors for a Series RLC Circuit VL p (VCpVLp) VR p I p φ V P VC p Click to edit Master subtitle style By Pythagoras’ theorem: (VP )2 = [ (VRp )2 + (VCp .VLp)2 ] 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4444 .

Phasors for a Series RLC Circuit VL p (VCpVLp) VR p I p φ V P VC p Click to edit Master subtitle style By Pythagoras’ theorem: (VP )2 = [ (VRp )2 + (VCp .VLp)2 ] 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4545 .

Phase in an RLC Circuit VL p VR p I p V P We can also find the phase: tan φ = (VCp VLp)/ VRp or. Click to edit Master subtitle style (VCpVC tan φ = (XC-XL)/R. VLp) p or tan φ = (1/ωC ωL) / R φ 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4646 .

the current and voltage are in 4747 . Click to edit Master subtitle style (VCpVC tan φ = (XC-XL)/R.Phase in an RLC Circuit VL p VR p I p V P We can also find the phase: tan φ = (VCp VLp)/ VRp or. in terms of = (1/ωC tan φ impedance: ωL) / R φ cos φ = R/Z At resonance the phase goes to zero (when the circuit becomes 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI purely resistive. VLp) p or More generally.

Power in an AC Circuit V φ= 0 I 2π ω t π V(t) = VP sin (ωt) I(t) = IP sin (ωt) Click to edit Master subtitle style (This is for a P purely resistive circuit.) 3/20/12 π AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 2π ω P(t) = IV = IP VP sin 2(ωt) Note this oscillates twice as fast. 4848 .

Use. so does the power: P is a function of time. Since both I and V vary in time. What we usually care about is the time average of this: 1 T (T=1/f P = 0 P( t )dt T ) ∫ 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 4949 . usually very fast. V = VP sin (ωt) and I = IP sin (ω t+φ ) : Click to edit Master subtitle style Power in an AC Circuit P(t) = IpVpsin(ωt) sin (ω t+φ ) This wiggles in time.The power is P=IV.

Now: sin( ωt + φ ) = sin( ωt )cos φ + cos( ωt )sin φ Power in an AC Circuit Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 5050 .

Now: sin( ωt + φ ) = sin( ωt )cos φ + cos( ωt )sin φ Power in an AC Circuit P( t ) = I PVP sin( ω t )sin( ω t + φ ) = I PVP sin 2 ( ω t )cos φ + sin( ω t )cos( ω t )sin φ Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 5151 .

Now: sin( ωt + φ ) = sin( ωt )cos φ + cos( ωt )sin φ Power in an AC Circuit P( t ) = I PVP sin( ω t )sin( ω t + φ ) = I PVP sin 2 ( ω t )cos φ + sin( ω t )cos( ω t )sin φ 1 Click to edit Master subtitle style 2 Us e: sin (ω ) = t 2 sin( ω ) cos( ω ) = 0 t t an So d: P = 1 2 I PV P cos φ 5252 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI .

Now: sin( ωt + φ ) = sin( ωt )cos φ + cos( ωt )sin φ Power in an AC Circuit P( t ) = I PVP sin( ω t )sin( ω t + φ ) = I PVP sin 2 ( ω t )cos φ + sin( ω t )cos( ω t )sin φ 1 Click to edit Master subtitle style 2 Us e: sin (ω ) = t 2 sin( ω ) cos( ω ) = 0 t t an So d: P = 1 2 I PV P cos φ which we usually P 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI write as = I rmsVrms cos φ 5353 .

When R=0. so the average power is positive) cos(φ)to edit Master subtitle style Click is called the power factor. cos(φ)=0 (energy is traded but not dissipated). For a purely resistive circuit the power factor is 1. AVADHUTA TRIVEDI 3/20/12 5454 . Usually the power factor depends on frequency.Power in an AC Circuit P = I rmsVrms cos φ (φ goes from -900 to 900.

Power in an AC Circuit P = I rmsVrms cos φ What if f is not zero? P subtitle style Click to edit Master V ω t 3/20/12 AVADHUTA TRIVEDI I Here I and V are 900 out of phase. (f= 900) (It is purely reactive) The time average of P is zero. 5555 .

LAGGING & LEADING POWER The phase f between the current and the driving emf depends on the relative magnitudes of the inductive and capacitive reactances. im ε = m Z X − XC tan φ = L R X L X L ≡ ωL 1 XC ≡ ωC Ζ φ X L φ R Ζ X L Ζ R R X C XL > XC φ>0 current 3/20/12 LAGS X X C C XC XL < XL = XC φ<0 φ=0 current current AVADHUTA TRIVEDI IN PHASE LEADS .

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