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NOMENCLATURE

NAMING COMPOUNDS

Naming Compounds-1
– people, Glauber’ salt – places, Anglesite – things, washing soda.

Naming Compounds-2

Naming Compounds-3
• Anglesite is a rare lead mineral (lead sulfate, PbSO4) • Anglesite is named after an island at the northern tip of the United Kingdom called Anglesey.

• It is a mineral which is mined on this island.

*Anglesey also has a village with the longest place name in Britain:

Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch

(Calgon) .Naming Compounds-4 • Sodium carbonate. because it is used for softening wash water. is named as washing soda. Na2CO3.

Naming Compounds-5 • water (H2O). . • ammonia (NH3) or • glucose (C6H12O6).

Naming Compounds-6 • Chemical nomenclature is the systematic naming of chemical compounds. .

Naming Compounds-7 Oxidation States: .A useful Tool in Describing and Naming Chemical Compounds .

or shares while joining with other atoms in compounds. . is related to the number of electrons that an atom loses. gains.Naming Compounds-8 • Oxidation state (oxidation number).

.is in -1 oxidation state. • Na+ is in +1 oxidation state and • Cl. • The compound consists of the ions Na+ and Cl-.Naming Compounds-9 • NaCl.

-2 .Naming Compounds-10 • H2O. • O. +1. • H.

Naming Compounds-11 • The oxidation state of an element can vary. depending on the compounds in which it occurs. .

Naming Compounds-12 1. . The oxidation state (abbreviated as O.) of an individual atom in a free element (uncombined with other elements) is 0.S.

The total oxidation states of all the atoms in – a)neutral species.Naming Compounds-13 2. – . is 0. b)an ion is equal to the charge on the ion. such as isolated molecules. and formula units.

.S. of +1 and the group IIA metals have an O. the group IA metals have an O.S. of +2. In their compounds.Naming Compounds-14 3.

the O.Naming Compounds-15 4. . In its compounds.S. of fluorine is -1.

The O.Naming Compounds-16 5. of VIII A group elements (halogens) in metal halogens is -1 • The other compounds of halogens have different O. .S.S.

hydrogen has O.Naming Compounds-17 6. of +1 except metal hydrides. of -1. .S.S. In these compounds hydrogen has O. In its compounds.

oxygen has an O. In its compounds. of -2 (except three situations). .Naming Compounds-18 7.S.

Binary Compounds of Metals and Nonmetals • Binary compounds-formed between two elements. • Ionic compounds .

modified to end in ide.Binary Compounds of Metals and Nonmetals -1 • 1-Unmodified name of the metal. . • 2-Nonmetal.

though made up of positive and negative ions.Binary Compounds of Metals and Nonmetals-2 • Ionic compounds. must be electrically neutral. • NaCl • Mgl2 • Al2O3 .

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Binary Compounds of Metals and Nonmetals-4 • Why don’t we use names such as sodium(I) chloride for NaCl and magnesium(II)chloride for MgCl2? .

Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals • • HCl. HCl not ClH . hydrogen chloride.

di=2. NO2. tri=3. and so on. • penta=5. N2O5 Prefixes: • mono=1. .Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals-1 • NO. hexa=6. tetra=4.

Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals-2 • • • • • SO2= sulfur dioxide SO3= sulfur trioxide CO = Carbon monoxide B2Br4= diboron tetrabromide NO= nitrogen monoxide. not mononitrogen monoxide .

Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals-3 • H2O= water (dihydrogen monoxide) • NH3= ammonia (H3N= trihydrogen mononitride) .

called magnesium dichloride and FeCl3. iron trichloride? .Binary Compounds of Two Nonmetals-4 • Why aren’t MgCl2.

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.Binary Acids • An acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when it dissolves in water. • Binary acids are certain compounds of H with other nonmetal atoms.

Binary Acids-1 • The binary acids: • HF(aq) = hydrofluoric acid • HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid • HBr(aq) = hydrobromic acid • HI(aq) = hydroiodic acid • H2S(aq) = hydrosulfuric acid .

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Some Common Polyatomic Ions Name Cation Ammonium ion Anions Acetate ion Carbonate ion Hydrogen carbonate ion* Or bicarbonate ion) Hypochlorite ion Chlorite ion Chlorate ion Perchlorate ion Chromate ion Dichromate ion Cyanide ion Hydroxide ion Nitrite ion Nitrate ion Oxalate ion Permanganate ion Phosphate ion Hydrogen phosphate ion* C2 H 3O 2 CO32HCO3ClOClO2ClO3ClO4CrO42Cr2O72CNOHNO2NO3C2O42MnO4PO43HPO42NaC2H3O2 Na2CO3 NaHCO3 NaClO NaClO2 NaClO3 NaClO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 NaCN NaOH NaNO2 NaNO3 Na2C2O4 KMnO4 Na3PO4 Na2HPO4 NH4+ NH4Cl Formula Typical Dihydrogen phosphate ion* H2PO42- NaH2PO4 .

.Polyatomic Ions • In polyatomic ions. two or more atoms are joined together by covalent bonds.

. you can see that 1. NH4+. ammonium ion.Polyatomic Ions-1 • From this table.

hydroxide ion CN. . hypo or per.cyanide ion The common endings are ite and ate. OH. and some names take prefix.Polyatomic Ions-2 2.

(oxoanions) Hypochlorite ion Chlorite ion ClOClO2- Chlorate ion Perchlorate ion Chromate ion Dichromate ion ClO3ClO4CrO42Cr2O72- . A common element oxygen.Polyatomic Ions-3 3.

P and S form a series of oxoanions Increasing oxidation state of nonmetal → Hypo _ite • / __ite /____ate / per___ate Increasing number of oxygen atoms → . Cl. Polyatomic Ions-4 4. N. Certain nonmetals.

Polyatomic Ions-5 5. Br and I carry a charge of 1-. . All the oxyanions of Cl.

HPO4-2 is the hydrogen phosphate ion and H2PO4-. Some series of oxoanions also contain varying numbers of H atoms and are named accordingly.Polyatomic Ions-6 6. . the dihydrogen phosphate ion. For example.

thiosulfate ion has two S and three O atoms.Polyatomic Ions-7 7. The prefix thio signifies that a sulfur atom has been substituted for an oxygen atom. S2O3-2. SO4-2. The sulfate ion has one S and four O atoms. .

• Acids are molecular compounds. and salts are ionic compounds. .Oxoacids • Oxoacids as combinations of hydrogen ions (H+) and oxoanions.

Table 5 Nomenclature of Some Oxoacids and Their Salts Oxidation state Cl: +1 Cl: +3 Cl: +5 Cl: +7 Formula of Acid HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 Name of Acid Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid Chloric acid Perchloric acid Formula of Salt NaClO NaClO2 NaClO3 NaClO4 Name of Salt Sodium hypochlorite Sodium chlorite Sodium chlorate Sodium perchlorate N: +3 N: +5 HNO2 HNO3 Nitrous acid Nitric acid NaNO2 NaNO3 Sodium nitrite Sodium nitrate S: +4 S: +6 H2SO3 H2SO4 Sulfurous acid Sulfuric acid Na2SO3 Na2SO4 Sodium sulfite Sodium sulfate .

CoCl2.Hydrates In a hydrate.6H2O cobalt(II)chloride hexahydrate . a certain number of water molecules exist in each formula unit of the compound.

.6H2O is pink • This fact can be used to make a simple moisture dedector. the resulting compound is said to be anhydrous (without water).Hydrates-1 • When the water is totally removed. • CoCl2 is blue • CoCl2.