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Almond Foliar and Bloom Disease Control

David Doll Farm Advisor Merced County March 20th, 2012

Almond Bloom Diseases


Trees are susceptible to many fungi, blossoms are highly susceptible

Rainy conditions favor disease Rainy periods occur during bloom!

Almond Bloom Diseases


Disease control is dependent upon:
Fungicide Used Timing Coverage

Growers need to assess which diseases are present and select the fungicide Rotation of fungicides is advised to reduce resistance

Almond Bloom Diseases


A typical bloom spray includes a spray at 520% bloom, and one at 80%- full bloom. Persistent rainy conditions may require a third spray - 10 days without protection

Almond Bloom Diseases


Three main diseases: 1. Brown Rot Blossom Blight 2. Shothole 3. Jacket Rot Other diseases: Scab, Rust, and Anthracnose

Brown Rot Monilinia laxa


Almost always sprayed for at least once full bloom Attacks anthers and pistils of opened flowers Moves into and kills the spur, can move into shoot Young fruit are also susceptible All varieties are susceptible; Butte and Carmel are most susceptible

A conventional Butte orchard that missed a full bloom brown rot spray had over 50% blossom blight despite no rain!

Brown Rot or Bacterial Blast?

Early Spring Diseases


3 Main Disease:
Green Jacket Rot Anthracnose Shot Hole

Tend to be more severe in wet weather Require retreatment of trees every 10-14 days if rain persists Once established, can become a re-occuring problem

Green Fruit/Jacket Rot


Caused by three fungi - Monilinia laxa - Botrytis cinerea - Sclerotinia sclerotiorium Timing of infection is from flower opening to petal fall symptoms are observed later Cultivars that form tight clusters are most susceptible: Butte, Ne Plus, Carmel, Merced

Poor control with DMIs (Bumper, Tilt, Quash, etc.)!!!

Almond AnthracnoseColletotrichum acutatum


Infected nuts show round, orangish, sunken lesions on the hull. Symptoms may appear 3 weeks after petal fall;

Profuse gumming occurs as the infection progresses into the kernel.

Almond AnthracnoseColletotrichum acutatum


Symptoms include spur and limb dieback. Leaves on infected spurs develop marginal necrosis, beginning with water-soaked areas that fade in color; leaves die but remain attached to branches. Control: Bloom to summer if wet

Shot Hole Wilsonomyces carpophilus


Requires water for completion of lifecycle Causes lesions on fruit and leaves; heavy fruit infection causes fruit drop Around the first of May, the hull becomes resistant to the disease Post-bloom fungicide applications (Petal Fall to 2-5 weeks after bloom)

Shot Hole Wilsonomyces carpophilus


Spots occur on leaves, fruit, twigs, and flowers; Spots on young leaves usually fall out, leaving a hole (the shot hole); older leaves retain their lesions. Fruit spots are small with purplish margins, slightly corky, and raised.

Shot Hole Wilsonomyces carpophilus


The fungus survives on infected twigs and as spores in healthy buds Spores are moved by water to new sites; prolonged periods of wetness, either due to rain or sprinkler irrigation

Shot Hole or Herbicide Drift?

Shark herbicide drift on almond

Shot Hole or Herbicide Drift?

Goal Drift on almond note the yellow halo.

Shot Hole or Herbicide Drift?

Paraquat on almond note the distinctive dead lesion

Shot Hole or Herbicide Drift?

Shot Hole!

Shot Hole or Herbicide Drift?

Neither Chemical Burn from a Spray Additive (Micro-nutrient).

Summer Diseases
3 Major Diseases Of Concern
Scab Rust Alternaria

Becoming more of a problem with increased planting densities Documented cases of resistance formation Biggest concern to many almond growers

Almond Scab - Cladosporium carpophilum

Gray-black, oil-like soft looking spots form on leaves, fruit, and twigs

Almond Scab - Cladosporium carpophilum


Young lesions are indistinct small yellow specks, best seen by holding a leaf up to the light. Lesions usually are not visible until late spring or early summer.

Almond Scab - Cladosporium carpophilum


The fungus survives in twig lesions, and spores are spread by wind or rain. Scab is favored by prolonged wet spring weather

Almond Scab - Cladosporium carpophilum


Severe scab infections can cause early defoliation If left uncontrolled for several years, infected trees become weakened. Control: Fungicides 2-5 weeks after petal fall Time to when lesions begin sporulating

Late Season Scab Defoliation

Lingering Effects of Scab

Scab Control
No History of Disease
Make an application 2-5 weeks post petal fall (PPF) Consider chlorothalinil at petal fall, 2 weeks PPF Use of DMI or strobilurin Micronized sulfur sprays made monthly may help suppress, but not very effective

History of Disease
Dormant application of copper and oil, or chlorothalinil and oil Follow same spray program listed under the no history

Almond Rust - Tranzchelia discolor


Rust occurs sporadically throughout almondgrowing areas in California. It often is serious on young orchards where bloom sprays have not been applied.

Almond Rust - Tranzchelia discolor


Rust appears as small, yellow spots on the upper surface of leaves. On the lower surface of the leaf these spots take on a rusty red appearance when the rustcolored spores produced in the lesions erupt through the surface.

Almond Rust - Tranzchelia discolor


In orchards with a history of rust, apply fungicides in late spring and summer to control leaf infections.
2-3 applications may be needed in orchards that have had severe rust problems.

Rust Management

To be effective, fungicide must be applied before rust symptoms are visible. To prevent the rust inoculum from increasing in late fall, apply zinc sulfate (20-40 lb/acre) in late October to early November to hasten leaf fall Fungicide Control: 5 weeks after petal fall on, My recommendation: Severe issue - Micronized sulfur once a month from May through July, Moderate issue - Strobilurin with May Spray

Alternaria Leaf Blight


Being found more frequently within orchards Causes complete defoliation Dense Plantings, orchards with high humidities have issues Strobilurin resistant populations exist within California

Alternaria Leaf Blight


Lesions have distinct bulls-eye, zonate look Sprays start 5 weeks post petal fall and continue through May and June Rotations are essential

Almond Bloom Diseases

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer
Infection of the inside of the hull Doesnt occur until after the almond has split High vigor increases the number of strikes

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer

Varietal Susceptibility
Most Nonpareil Butte Winters Moderately Price Sonora Aldrich Wood Colony Padre Mission Least Fritz Carmel Monterey

Effect of N fertilization on Hull Rot-N Source UAN 32


Drip
a a

Fan Jet
a a
a

b b b

Treatments A= N 125lb/ac B= N 200lb/ac C= N 275lb/ac D= N 350lb/ac

Green line represents mean

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer
Application of water stress at hull-split initiation
Achieve water stress of -14 bars using SWP Resume irrigation Around a 50% reduction in water applied during the first week of hull split
Strikes per tress

Effect of RDI on Hull Rot 2003


20 15 10 5 0 2.2 17.7

Control RDI

Hull Rot of Almond


Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer
Reduce fertilization if too high
Leaf Value 2.2-2.5%

Reduce irrigation at onset of hull split Application of fungicides timed to when the hull is <0.25 split.

Fungicide Rotation: Why?

Fungicide Rotation: Why?

Fungicide Rotation: Why?

Fungicide Rotation: Why?

A
B

Fungicide Rotation: How?


Rotate through different group numbers Never use same number back to back Provided on fungicide label

Fungicide Rotation: How?

Further Resources
UC IPM Website Almond Doctor Blog Local Extension Office Chemical PCA

Fungicides for Brown Rot


timing: pink bud-full bloom-petal fall
Topsin/Benlate Pristine Rovral Vangard Scala high risk (1) medium (11/7) low risk (2) high risk (9) high risk (9) Benzimidazole Strobilurin/Boscalid Dicarboximide Anilinopyrimidine Anilinopyrimidine

Abound high risk (11) Strobilurin Rally/Laredo high risk (3) Demethylation Elevate high risk (17) Hydroxyanilide Flint / Gem high risk (11) Strobilurin Bravo/Echo low risk (M5) Aromatic hydrocarbon Captan low risk (M4) Phthalamide Ziram/Maneb low risk (M3) Carbamate

Fungicides for Shot Hole


timing:petal fall till 2-5 weeks after bloom Pristine (11/7) Captan (M4) Ziram (M3) Rovral (2) Bravo/Echo (M5) Abound (11) Flint (11) Gem (11) medium low risk low risk low risk low risk high risk high risk high risk Strobilurin/Boscalid Phthalamide Carbamate Dicarboximide Aromatic nitrile Strobilurin Strobilurin Strobilurin

Vangard (9) Scala (9) Laredo (3)

high risk high risk high risk

Anilinopyrimidine Anilinopyrimidine DMI-Triazole

Fungicides for Scab


timing 2-5 weeks after petal fall Pristine (11/7) Flint / Gem (11) Abound (11) Captan (M4) Ziram (M3) Bravo/Echo (M5) Topsin (1) medium high risk high risk low risk low risk low risk high risk Strobilurin/Boscalid Strobilurin Strobilurin Phthalamide Carbamate Aromatic nitrile Benzimidazole

Maneb (M3) Lime Sulfur

low risk low risk

Carbamate

Fungicides for Rust


timing: 5 weeks after petal fall on

Pristine (11/7) Flint / Gem (11) Abound (11) Maneb (M3)

medium high risk high risk low risk low risk low risk

Strobilurin/Boscalid Strobilurin Strobilurin Carbamate Inorganic Dicarboximide

Sulfur Rovral (2)

Fungicides for Anthracnose


timing: bloom to summer if wet Pristine (11/7) Flint/Gem (11) Abound (11) medium high risk high risk Strobilurin/Boscalid Strobilurin Strobilurin

Captan (M4) low risk Phthalamide Ziram (M3) low risk Carbamate Bravo/Echo (M5) low risk Aromatic nitrile Maneb (M3) Rally/Laredo(3) low risk high risk Carbamate DMI-Triazole