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Introduction to Information Technology

Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

CHAPER 3
COMPUTER HARDWARE
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Learning Objectives
 Identify the major hardware components of a computer
 Describe the design and functioning of the central processing unit
 Discuss the relationships between microprocessor component
designs and performance
 Describe the main types of primary and secondary storage
 Distinguish between primary and secondary storage along the
dimensions of speed, cost, and capacity
 Describe the hierarchy of a computer according to power and
their respective roles
 Differentiate the types of input and output technologies and their
uses
 Describe what multimedia systems are and what technologies they
use
 Discuss strategic issues that link hardware design and innovation
to competitive business strategy
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Chapter Overview
The Central Computer Computer
Processing Unit Memory Hierarchy
• How the • Memory Capacity • Supercomputers
CPU Works • Primary Storage • Mainframe Computers
• Advances in • Secondary Storage • Minicomputers
Microprocessor • Workstations
Design • Microcomputer
• Computing Devices
Input Output Strategic
Technologies Technologies Hardware Issues
• Human Data • Monitors • Printer • Productivity
Entry Devices • Voice Output • Changing Work Styles
• Source Data • Multifunction • New Products and
Automation Devices Services
• Multimedia • Improve
Communications
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware
Case: Cutting Edge Hardware
Solutions for the Bellagio Hotel
 The Problem
select to assure uptime and minimize
the strain on their massive network
tested the capabilities of the Intel Xeon processor
 The Solution
Dell PowerEdge 6300 and PowerVault 650F five-
channel storage - in addition to a mix of 100 Dell
PowerEdge 2200 and 2300 workgroup-level servers
The Results
Able to implement the network they needed to help
make this one of the truly great resorts in the world
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Case (continued…)
What have we learned from this case??
selecting the right IT infrastructure
» ‘out of the box’ thinking - imagining how business
processes could ideally be configured and supported,
rather than incremental technology-based improvement of
an outdated process model
» focus on three interrelated factors : capability (power and
appropriateness of the task), speed, and cost
» evaluating new hardware options and figuring out how to
integrate them with existing systems
» changing of computer hardware almost always means
much of its software needs to be rewritten to run on the
hardware’s new operating system
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

The Significance of Hardware

Some basic understanding of
computer hardware design and
function is essential because firms
(and individuals) frequently must
assess their competitive advantage in
terms of computing capability.
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Desktop or Portable PC : The Tradeoffs
Desktop Personal Computer Portable Personal Computer
Impractical for mobile computing Designed for mobile computing
Lower cost Higher cost
Easily expanded Difficult to expand
Comfortable ergonomics Uncomfortable ergonomics (small
keyboard, often with inconvenient
placement of function keys)
Easy-to-use mouse or other Awkward pointing devices (some allow
pointing device traditional mouse to be connected)
High resolution/brightness monitor Lower resolution, less bright
High RAM and hard-drive capacity Somewhat less RAM and hard-drive capacity
Easy serviceability More difficult to service/repair
Can utilize all current PC chips Some models cannot use some chips, due
to cooling problems
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware
The physical equipment used for the input,
processing, output, and storage activities of a
computer system
Central processing unit (CPU)
Memory (primary and secondary storage)
Input technologies
Output technologies
Communication technologies
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
a microprocessor is made up of millions of
microscopic transistors embedded in a circuit on a
silicon wafer or “chip”
Control unit
» controls the flows of information
Arithmetic-logic unit
» performs the arithmetic calculations
Registers
» stores very small amounts of data and
instructions for short periods of time
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

CPU (continued …)
 How the CPU Works?
THE MICROPROCESSOR
CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC -
LOGIC UNIT
Instruction Instruction Instruction
EDCODE EXECUTE
FETCH STORE
INPUT
FROM Results
REGISTERS
SOFTWARE Instruction

PRIMARY STORAGE (MAIN MEMORY)
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

CPU (continued …)
 Advances in Microprocessor Design
increasing miniaturization of transistors
making the physical layout of the chip’s components
as compact and efficient as possible
new materials for the chip that improve the
conductivity (flow) of electricity
amount of basic instructions programmed into the
chip
» complex instruction set computing (CISC)
» reduced instruction set computing (RISC)
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Memory
Computer memory affects the type of program it can
run and the work it can do, its speed, and both the cost
of the machine and the cost of processing data
Memory capacity
» bits - ‘0’ or ‘1’
> eight bits are needed to represent any one of alphanumeric
character or mathematical operation
» byte - eight-bit string
» kilobyte (KB) - 1,024 bytes (210 bytes)
» megabyte (MB) - 1,048,576 bytes (210 x 210 bytes)
> most PC have several megabytes of RAM memory
» gigabyte (GB) - 1,073,741,824 bytes (210 x 210 x 210 bytes)
> hard drive in modern PCs is often more than one GB
» terabyte - 1,078,036,791,296 bytes
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Memory (continued …)
Primary storage
stores for very brief periods of time three types of
information
» data to be processed by the CPU
» instructions for the CPU as to how to process the data
» operating system programs that manage various aspects
of the computer’s operation
four types of primary storage
» registers
» random access memory (RAM)
» cache memory
» read-only memory
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Memory (continued …)
Secondary storage
stores very large amounts of data for extended
periods of time
can have memory capacity of a gigabyte or more
can be non-volatile
takes much more time to retrieve data
can be much more cost effective than primary
storage
can take place on a variety of media, each with its
own technology
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Memory (continued …)
Secondary storage (cont’)
Magnetic media - store data via magnetism
» Magnetic tape - kept on a large open reel or in a smaller
cartridge or cassette
» Magnetic disks - allow much more rapid access to the data
than does magnetic tape
» Hard drive (hard disk) - permanently mounted in a unit that
may be internal or external to the computer
» Magnetic diskettes (floppy disks) - have much less
capacity, ranging from 1.44 megabytes for a standard high-
density disk to 200 megabytes for a disk formatted for a zip
drive
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Memory (continued …)
Secondary storage (cont’)
Optical storage devices - a pinpoint laser beam is used
to burn tiny holes into the surface of a reflective
plastic platter
» Compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) -
high-capacity, low cost, high durability, and read
only but not written on
» Write once, read many disk (WORM) - can be
written on, but requires the laser technology (the
“CD burner”) to do so
» Rewritable CDs - allow the disk to be written upon
and rewritten up to 1,000 times
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Hierarchy
 Supercomputer
has the most processing power
especially valuable for large simulation models of real-
world phenomena
Mainframe Computer
used in large corporations for centralized data processing
and maintaining large databases
allowing for data and information to be shared
throughout the organization
several hundreds or thousands of online computers can
be linked to a mainframe
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Hierarchy (continued …)
Minicomputers (midrange computer)
perform the same functions as mainframe computers but
to a limited extent
designed to accomplish specific tasks such as process
control, scientific research, and engineering applications
Workstations
based on RISC (reduced instruction set computer)
architecture
provide both very high-speed calculations and high-
resolution graphic displays
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Hierarchy (continued …)
Microcomputers (micros or personal computers, PCs)
Desktop PCs - typical, familiar microcomputer system
» modular in design, with separate but connected monitor,
keyboard, and CPU
» Network computers (NCs) - allow users to access a network
Laptop and Notebook Computers - small, easily
transportable, lightweight microcomputers
» designed for maximum convenience and transportability
Palmtop Computer - hand-held microcomputers
» configured for specific applications and limited in the number
of ways they can accept user input and provide output
» Personal digital assistants (PDAs) - a computer appliance
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Computer Hierarchy (continued …)
Computing Devices - ever-smaller
computing/communication devices
Wearable computers
» free users’ movements
Embedded computers
» placed inside other products to add features and capabilities
Active badges
» worn as ID cards by employees who wish to stay in touch at
all times while moving around the corporate premises
Memory buttons
» store a small database relating to whatever it is attached to
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Input Technologies
Human Data Entry Devices
keyboard - designed like a typewriter but with
many additional function keys
mice and trackball - used to point a cursor at a
desired place on the screen
touch screens - touch the desired area to trigger an
action
stylus - a pen-style device
joy stick - used primarily at workstations that can
display dynamic graphics
microphone - used to dictate to the computer
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Input Technologies (continued …)
Source Data Automation
Cash transaction devices
» automated teller machines (ATMs)
» point-of-sale (POS) terminals
Optical scanners - optical character recognition
(OCR) software is used in conjunction with a scanner
» bar code scanners
» optical mark reader
» magnetic ink character readers
Voice recognition
Sensors
Cameras
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Output Technologies
Monitors
the video screen used with most computers that
displays input as well as output
Printers
impact printers
» like typewriter, using some kind of striking action
non-impact printers
» laser printer - uses laser beams to write information
plotters
» uses computer-directed pens for creating high-
quality images
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Output Technologies (continued …)
Voice Output
can be played through speakers
Multifunction Devices
combine a variety of technologies - fax, printer,
scanner, copy machine, and answering machine
Multimedia
computer-based integration of text, sound, still
images, animation, and digitized motion video
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 3 Computer Hardware

Strategic Hardware Issues
 Productivity
businesses need to assess whether employees’ personal
productivity is likely to increase as microprocessor power and
speed increase
 Changing Work Styles
organizations must consider whether new work styles will benefit
employees and the firm as a whole
 New Products and Services
organizations should consider whether they are ready and able to
take advantage of the advances, and new products and services that
hardware may make possible for the business
 Improved Communication
businesses need to judge whether they are ready to use multimedia