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Introduction to Information Technology

Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

CHAPER 4
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Learning Objectives
Differentiate between the two major types of software
Describe the general functions of the operating
system
Differentiate among the three types of operating
systems and describe each type
Identify three methods for developing application
software
Describe the major types of application software
Explain how software has evolved and its future
evolution
Describe enterprise software
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Chapter Overview
Software History Systems Application
and Significance Software Software
• The Software • System Control • Types of Application Software
Crisis Programs • Types of Personal Application
• Software • System Support Software
Fundamentals Programs • Software Suites
Software Programming Enterprise
Issues Languages Software
• Software • Machine Language • Streamlining
evaluation and • Assembly Language Organizational
Selection • Procedural Languages Software
•Software Licensing • Nonprocedural Languages • SAP
•Software Upgrades • Natural Programming Language
•Shareware, • Visual Programming Language
Freeware, and • Hypertext Markup Language
Cheapware • Virtual Reality Modelling
•Open Systems Language
• Object-Oriented Programming
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Case: The IRS and the Millennium Bug
 The Problem
Y2K problem has resulted from the high
cost of mainframe computations and
data storage in the 1950s and 1960s
complex structure makes it almost impossible for
the IRS to be Y2K compliant in time
agency changed its software in response to changes
in the tax code
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Case (continued…)
 The Solution
IRS has spent more than $4 billion over the past
decade to modernize its computer systems
the agency has $1 billion dollars and 600 people
dedicated to the Y2K project
The Results
no one will know until well into the year 2000
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Case (continued…)
What have we learned from this case??
Failure to budget for continuing
maintenance of software programs can
have devastating results
One programmer cannot begin with his portion of
the problem until he receives another completed
portion form someone else, as this other part or
“module” may define the inputs or outputs that
his own part must deal with
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software History and Significance
When the first applications of computers in business were
introduced in the early 1950s, software was less important
(and less costly) in computer systems
Today, software comprises a much larger percentage of the
cost of modern computer systems
The Software Crisis
no software applications fast enough to keep up with rapidly
changing business conditions and rapidly evolving technologies
not only must new applications be developed quickly, but
existing software must also be maintained
increasing complexity, leads to the increased potential for “bugs”
testing and “debugging” software is expensive and time-
consuming
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software History and Significance
(continued …)
Software Fundamentals
computer programs - sequences of instructions for
the computer
programming - process of writing (or coding)
programs
programmers - individuals who perform
programming
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software
System software
the class of programs that control and support the
computer system and its information processing
activities
facilitates the programming, testing, and
debugging of computer programs
usually independent of any specific type of
application
support application software by directing the
basic functions of the computer
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program
programs that control the use of the hardware,
software and data resources of a computer system
operating system (main system control program)
» supervises the overall operation of the computer,
including monitoring the computer’s status and
scheduling operations, which include controlling the
input and output processes
» allocates CPU time and main memory to programs
running on the computer, and also provides an interface
between the user and the hardware
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program (continued …)
Process management
» managing the program or programs running on the
processor at a given time
Multitasking (or multiprogramming)
» managing two or more tasks, programs, running on the
computer system at the same time
Time-sharing
» a number of users operate on-line with the same CPU, but
each uses a different input/output terminal
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program (continued …)
Multithreading
» a form of multitasking that focuses on running multiple tasks
within a single application simultaneously
Multiprocessing
» a computer system with two or more processors that can run
more than one program or thread at a given time by
assigning them to different processors
Virtual memory
» simulates more main memory than actually exists in the
computer system
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program (continued …)
File Management and Security
» managing the arrangement of, and access to, files held in
secondary storage
Fault Tolerance
» the ability of a system to produce correct results and
continue to operate even in the presence of faults or errors
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
» allows users to have direct control of visible objects and
actions that replace complex command syntax
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program (continued …)
Major Desktop Operating Systems
MS-DOS Windows 3.xx
Windows 98
Windows 95
Windows NT Windows 2000

Windows CE IBM’s OS/2
Macintosh Operating System
UNIX
Java Operating System (JavaOS)
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Control Program (continued …)
Major Departmental Sever Operating System
» UNIX, Windows NT Server, IBM’s OS/2 Warp Server,
Novell NetWare, and IBM’s OS/400
Major Enterprise Operating Systems
» IBM’s MVS (Multiple Virtual Storage), IBM’s VM
(Virtual Machine), IBM’s VSE (Virtual Storage
Extended), and Digital Open VMS (Virtual machine
System)
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Support Programs
System support programs
» support the operations, management, and users of a
computer system
System utility programs
» accomplish common tasks such as sorting records,
checking the integrity of diskettes, creating
directories and subdirectories, restoring accidentally
erased files, locating files within the directory
structure, managing memory usage, and redirecting
output
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

System Software (continued …)
System Support Programs (continued …)
System performance monitors
» monitor the processing of jobs on a computer
system and produce reports containing detailed
statistics concerning the use of system resources
System security monitors
» monitor the use of a computer system to protect it
and its resources from unauthorized use, fraud, or
destruction
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Application Software
Application Software
instructions that direct a computer system to perform
specific information processing activities and provide
functionality for users
Types of Application Software
Proprietary application software
» addresses a specific or unique business need for a company
Off-the-shelf application software
» developed programs sold to many organizations
» may be customizable or may be standard package
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Application Software (continued …)
Personal Application Software
one of the off-the-shelf application programs
that are not linked to any specific business
function, but instead support general types of
processing
Data management
Encompassing spreadsheet
Desktop publishing Publishing Word processing

Graphics Multimedia Communications
GroupWare
Speech recognition software
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Application Software (continued …)
Software Suites
collections of application software packages
that integrate the functions of the packages
examples : Microsoft Office, Novell Perfect
Office, and Lotus SmartSuite
generally include : a spreadsheet program, word
processor, database program, and graphics
package with the ability to move document,
data. And diagrams among them
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software Issues
Software Selection
Selection factors
» size and location of the current and future user base
» system administration tools
» initial and subsequent costs
» current and future system capabilities
» existing computing environment
» in-house technical skills
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software Issues (continued …)
Software Evaluation
evaluation checklist
» ease of use in development » learning
» maintenance » reporting capability
» graphic presentation » general functionality
» data handling » output options
» performance » security
» environments and hardware » documentation
» vendor support
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software Issues (continued …)
Software Licensing
copyright - exclusive legal right to reproduce,
publish, and sell the software
licenses - permission granted under the law to
engage in an activity otherwise unlawful
Software Upgrades
revised software may offer valuable enhancements
but may offer little in terms of additional capabilities
revised software may contain bugs
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Software Issues (continued …)
Shareware, Freeware, and Cheapware
Shareware - low price software
Freeware - free copyrighted software
Cheapware - free public-domain software
Open Systems
a paradigm of computing products that work together
use the same operating system with compatible
software on all the different computers in a system
to empower designers to choose the best computer
hardware, operating system, and application software
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Programming Languages
Machine Language (first generation of programming languages)
the lowest level computer language … ..
……
composed of binary digits
all other languages are translated into machine
language before the computer can run the instructions
Assembly Language (second generation of computer languages)
a lower-level but more user-friendly language
assembler - translates an assembly language program
into machine language
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software
Programming Languages
(continued …)
Procedural Languages (third generation languages)
much closer to natural language
use common words rather than abbreviated
mnemonics
compiler - translates the entire program at once
interpreter - translates and executes one source
program statement at a time
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software
Programming Languages
(continued …)
Nonprocedural Language (fourth generation languages)
a high-level language
allows the user to specify the desired result without
having to specify the detailed procedures needed for
achieving the result
can be used by non technical users
Natural Language programming Languages (fifth
generation languages)
translates natural languages into a structured, machine-
readable from are extremely complex
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software
Programming Languages
(continued …)
Visual Programming Languages
used within a graphical environment
example : Visual Basic and Visual C++
popular to non technical users
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
standard language used in World Wide Web
contains text, images, and other types of
information such as data files, audio, video, and
executable computer programs
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software
Programming Languages
(continued …)
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
a file format for describing three-dimensional
interactive worlds and objects
can be used with the World Wide Web
Object-Oriented Programming Languages (OOP)
based on the idea of taking a small amount of data and
the instructions about what to do with that data and
putting both of these together into what is called an
object
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Enterprise Software
Difficulty in Most Organizations
the sheer complexity that arises from all the different
types of hardware and software that they use
Package Wanted by an Organization
support integration between functional (i.e., human
resource, operations, marketing, finance, accounting,
etc.) modules
be quickly changed or enhanced
present a common graphical look-and-feel
help to reduce training and operation costs
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Enterprise Software (continued …)
Enterprise Software
manages a company’s vital operations, such as
supply chain management (movement of raw
material from suppliers through shipment of
finished goods to customers), inventory
replenishment, ordering, logistics coordination,
human resource management, manufacturing,
operations, accounting, and financial
management
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 4 Computer Software

Enterprise Software (continued …)
System Anwendung Produket (SAP)
one of the largest vendors (holds 30% of the enterprise
software market)
strength :  high degree of integration  support for
multi-site, multi-currency operations
R / 3 - flagship client/server product
» has a high degree of functional integration across the enterprise
» criticism : complex, time-consuming and expensive to install
and integrate with other systems
» decoupling the models of R/3 into separate components, each
with its own database