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Introduction to Information Technology

Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

CHAPTER 14
INFORMATION SYSTMES
DEVELOPMENT
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Learning Objectives
Discuss the concept of a systems development life cycle
(SDLC)
Describe the information systems planning process
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the
traditional development, prototyping, rapid application
development, object-oriented development, and end-user
development life cycles
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of CASE tools
Evaluate the alternatives to in-house systems
development
Discuss the key features of Internet and intranet
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Chapter Overview
Information Systems The Traditional SDLC Alternative Methods for
Planning Systems Development
• The IS Strategic Plan • System Investigation • Prototyping
• The IS Operational • Systems Analysis • Join Application Design (JAD)
• Systems Design • Rapid Application
Plan • Programming Development (RAD)
• Testing • Integrated Computer-Assisted
• Implementation Software Engineering (ICASE)
• Operation and Tools
Maintenance • Object-Oriented Development

Systems Development Building Internet and
Outside the IS Department Intranet Applications
• End-User development • An Internet and Intranet
• External Acquisition of Development Strategy
Software • Java - A Promising Tool
• Outsourcing
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development
Case: Success in Systems Development
at Inland Steel is a Team Effort
 The Business Problem
How to complete Inland Steel’s Order
Fulfillment System (OFS), a huge systems
development project, successfully on time and on budget
The Solution
reviewed all requests from the business units for changes and
enhancements, and approved only a dozen, to minimize the
tendency of a project’s goals to grow beyond initial
specifications during the development process
The Results
reduce by 50 percent the response time to customer inquiries
upgraded and expanded some jobs from clerical to
professional functions
integrating information in an IBM DB2 relational database
that previously had resided in isolated databases
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Case (continued…)
What have we learned from this case??
Information system’s timely and careful
development is a very high priority
Many firms no longer attempt a major
systems development by themselves
System development is a team effort that often
includes end users, top management, IS
professional, vendors, consultants, and
whatever other specialized expertise is
necessary
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Information Systems Planning
Organization Business
Mission Assessment
IS Planning Process

Organization Current Information
Strategic Plan Technology Architecture

IS Strategic Plan

New information Technology Architecture

IS Operational Plan

IS Development Projects
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

IS Planning (continued …)
The IS Strategic Plan
Objectives
it must be aligned with the organization’s strategic plan
it must provide for an IT architecture that enables
users, applications, and databases to be seamlessly
networked and integrated
it must efficiently allocate IS development resources
among competing projects, so the projects can be
completed on time, within budget, and have required
the functionality
Issues : efficiency; effectiveness; competitiveness
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

IS Planning (continued …)
The IS Operational Plan
Mission : the mission of the IS function
IS environment : the summary of the information needs
of the functional areas and of the organization as a whole
Objectives of the IS function : the IS function’s current
best estimate of its goals
Constraints on the IS function : technological, financial,
and personnel limitations on the IS function
Long-term systems need : a summary of the processes
needed by a company and the IS projects selected to
support them and reach organizational goals
Short-range plan : an inventory of current projects, and
a detailed plan of projects to be developed or continued
during the current year
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

The Traditional Systems
Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
SDLC - the development method used by most
organizations today for large, complex systems
Waterfall Approach - a sequence of steps in the SDLC
with cycles returned to previous stops
Systems Analysts - IS professionals who specialize in
analyzing and designing information systems
Programmers - IS professionals who modify existing
computer programs or write new computer programs to
satisfy user requirements
Technical Specialists - experts in a certain type of
technology, such as databases or telecommunications
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
(1) Systems Investigation An eight-stage systems
(2) Systems Analysis development life cycle
(3) Systems Design (SDLC)
(4) Programming

(5) Testing

(6) Implementation

(7) Operation

(8) Maintenance

Go Back to a previous Stage or Stop
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Systems Investigation (Step 1)
Feasibility Study determines the probability of
success of proposed system’s development project
and assesses the project’s
technical feasibility : determines if the hardware,
software, and communication components can be
developed or acquired to solve the business problem
economic feasibility : determines if the project is an
acceptable financial risk and if the organization can
afford the expense and time needed to complete the
project
behavioral feasibility : addresses the human issues of the
project
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Systems Analysis (Step 2)
the examination of the business problem
that the organization plans to solve with
information systems
produces the following information
strengths and weaknesses of the
existing system
functions that the new systems must
have to solve the business problem
user information requirements for the
new systems
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Systems Design (Step 3)
describes how the system will accomplish the task
technical design
system outputs, inputs, and user interfaces
hardware, software, databases, telecommunications,
personnel, and procedures
how these components are integrated
local systems design : what the system will do
Physical systems design : how the system will
perform its functions
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Programming (Step 4)
the translation of the design specifications
into computer code
structured programming techniques :
improve the logical flow of the program by
decomposing the computer code into
modules, which are sections of code
sequence structure
decision structure
loop structure
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)

Testing (Step 5)
checks to see if the computer code will
produce the expected and desired results
under certain conditions
syntax errors : misspelled word or a
misplaced comma
logic errors : permit the program to run,
but result in incorrect output
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Implementation (Step 6)
the process of converting from the old system to the
new system
four major conversion strategies
parallel conversion : the old and new systems
operate simultaneously for a period of time
direct conversion : the old system is cut off and the
new systems is turned on at a certain point in time
pilot conversion : introduces the new system in one
part of the organization
phased conversion : introduces components of the
new systems in stages
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

SDLC (continued …)
Operation (Step 7)
the new systems will operate for a period
of time, until it no longer meets its
objectives
Maintenance (Step 8)
debugging the program
updating the system to accommodate
changes in business conditions
add new functionality to the system
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Prototyping
Prototyping obtain only a general idea of user
requirements
Advantages:
speeds up the development approach
gives the users the opportunity to clarify their
information requirements
useful in the development of decision support
systems and executive information systems
Disadvantages:
replaces the systematic analysis and design stages of
the SDLC - quality may be sacrificed
can result in an excess of iterations
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Joint Application Design (JAD)
JAD is a group-based method for collecting user
requirements and creating staged designs
Advantages:
saves time
greater support for, and acceptance of new systems
produces higher quality systems
easier implementation
lower training costs
Disadvantages:
very difficult to get all users to JASD meetings
all the problems that may be caused by any group process
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Rapid Application Development
(RAD)
RAD is a systems development method that can
combine JAD, prototyping, and integrated CASE
tools, to rapidly produce a high-quality system
Advantages:
active involvement of users in the development process
speeds the development process
reduces development costs
can create applications that are easier to maintain and
modify
Disadvantages:
may result in systems with limited functionality and
adaptability for change
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Integrated Computer-Assisted Software
Engineering (ICASE) Tools
ICASE Tools automate many of the tasks in the SDLC
Upper CASE, lower CASE and integrated CASE
Advantages:
produces systems with a longer effective operational life
speeds up the development process and result in systems that
are more flexible and adaptable to changing business conditions
results in excellent documentation
Disadvantages:
more expensive to build and maintain initial system
requires more extensive and accurate definition of user needs
and requirements
difficult to customize and may be difficult to use with existing
system
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Object-Oriented Development
Object-Oriented Development based on a fundamentally
different view of computer systems than that found in traditional
SDLC development approaches
Advantages:
 reduces the complexity of systems development and leads to systems
that are easier and quicker to build an maintain
 improves programmers’ productivity and quality
 more flexible
 allows systems analysts to think the real-world systems
 ideal for developing Web applications
 depicts the various elements of an information systems in user
standing of what the new system does and how it meets its objectives
Disadvantages
 runs more slowly
 needs to retain the programmers
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development
Systems Development outside
the IS Department
End-User Development
users will continue to do more ad hoc programming
Types of end-user computing:
non programming end users : enter data, use
applications
command-level users : access data, print reports
end-user programmers : develop applications for
personal use
functional support personnel : develop applications
for others to use
end-user computing support personnel : training,
hotline, help users develop applications
programmers : develop complex applications
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development
Systems Development outside
the IS Department (continues …)
End-User Development (CONT’)
Factors that drive the trends toward increased
end-user computing and end-user development
increasingly powerful desktop hardware
declining hardware costs
increase diverse software capabilities
increasingly computer literate population
backlog of IS projects
development speed business orientation
small applications control
Apparent cost savings User friendly software
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Systems Development outside
the IS Department (continues …)
Advantages of End-User Development
 gives users control over both the initial development of
an application and the ongoing maintenance
 no need to explain user requirements to IS analysts
 gives users control over the development budget
 results in the possibility of greater user acceptance
Disadvantages of End-User Development
needs some additional spending
difficult for managers outside the IS area to evaluate
end-user development activities
fail to produce adequate documentation for the systems
security may be breached
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Systems Development outside
the IS Department (continues …)
External Acquisition of Software
factors considered during make-or-buy
decision
on-time
on-budget
full functionality
user acceptance
favorable costs-to-benefits ratio
low maintenance
scalability
integration with other systems
minimal negative cross-impacts
reusability
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Systems Development outside
the IS Department (continues …)
Outsourcing
purchase of any product or service from other company
advantages: Disadvantages:
economies of scale of limited economies of scale
hardware staffing
economies of scale of lack of business expertise
staffing contract problems
specialization internal cost reduction
tax benefits opportunities
guidelines:
write short-period contracts
subcontracting
selective outsourcing
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Building Internet and
Intranet Applications
An Internet and intranet
Development Strategy
identify the objectives for
organizational Web site(s) and pages
adequately cover infrastructure
requirements as well as security are
legal issues
identify and prioritize potential projects
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

Internet and Intranet
JAVA - A Promising Tools
the most important programming language for
putting extra features into Web pages
an object-oriented language
can be sent from a Web server over the Internet
and then run on the computer that is viewing the
Web page
has numerous security features to prevent
downloaded programs from damaging files or
creating other problems on the receiving computer
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

What’s in IT for Me?
For Accounting
accounting functions are traditionally data-intensive
properly developed systems are a must
For Finance
those acquainted with systems development
methodologies are better equipped to assist in getting the
right systems developed in the right way and budget
For Marketing
marketing functions are hotbed of systems development
Introduction to Information Technology
Turban, Rainer and Potter
Chapter 14 Information systems development

What’s in IT for Me? (continued …)

For Production/Operations Management
increasingly computer-controlled and
integrated with other allied systems, from
design to logistics to inventory control to
production planning
For Human Resources Management
new systems may require terminating
employees, hiring new employees, or changing
job descriptions