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IF Clause

prezentare

Tip zero
Se refera la actiuni prezente, perfect realizabile. Ex.: Daca plou, imi iau umbrela. If it rains I take my umbrella.

Tip I
Se refera la actiuni viitoare, posibil realizabile. Ex.: Daca va ploua, imi voi lua umbrela. If it rains Ill take my umbrella. Observatie: Chiar daca in romana folosim viitor dupa daca, in engleza se foloseste doar prezentul!

Tip II
Se refera la actiuni prezente, teoretic posibile. Se traduce cu conditional-optativul prezent din romana. Ex.: Daca ar ploua, mi-as lua umbrela. If it rained, I would take my umbrella. ! Atentie la urmatoarea exprimare: Daca as fi in locul tau, m-as duce acolo. If I were you I would go there. Observatie: in cazul conditionalei tip II se foloseste were la toate persoanele, inclusiv he,she,it!

Tip III
Se refera la actiuni trecute, imposibil de a se mai realiza. Se traduce cu conditional-optativul perfect (trecut) din romana. Ex.: Daca ar fi plouat, mi-as fi luat umbrela. If it had rained I would have taken my umbrella.

Atentie!!! Se mai poate traduce si cu imperfectul din romana, insa exprima tot o conditie, nu o actiune in desfasurare: Daca ploua, imi luam umbrela. If it had rained I would have taken my umbrella.

recapitulare
tip o
I

IF
Present Present Past Simple

Propozitia principala
Present Future (viitor) Conditional prezent: S + would + V (could) (should) (might) Conditional perfect: S + would + have + V(III) (could) (should) (might)

II
Past Perfect

II I

would sau could sau should sau might ?

Could => cand vrem sa exprimam a putea Might => cand vrem sa exprimam s-ar putea Should => cand vrem sa exprimam ar trebui Would => in restul situatiilor

would sau could sau should sau might ?


Ex.: Daca ai fi vrut, ai fi putut merge acolo. (tip III) If you had wanted, you could have gone there. Daca ai fi vrut, s-ar fi putut sa reusesti. (tip III) If you had wanted, you might have succeeded. Daca ai fi vrut cartea, ar fi trebuit sa-mi spui. (tip III) If you had wanted the book, you should have told me. Daca ai fi vrut, te-ai fi dus acolo. (tip III) If you had wanted, you would have gone there.

In cadrul frazei, propozitia principala se poate inversa cu propozitia conditionala (adica cea introdusa prin daca)

Atentie la ordinea de aplicare a coloanelor din tabelul anterior! Ex: Te duci daca doresti. (tip 0) You go if you want. (present in princip.+present in if) Te vei duce daca vei dori. (tip I) You will go if you want. (future in princip.+present in if) Te-ai duce daca ai dori (tip II). You would go if you wanted. (condit.present in princip.+past in if) Te-ai fi dus daca ai fi dorit. (tip III) You would have gone if you had wanted. (condit.perfect in princip.+past perfect in if)

Conditionale mixte
Daca m-ai fi ascultat, nu ai fi acum aici. mixta III cu II If you had listened to me, you wouldnt be here now. Observatie: propozitia conditionala se refera la trecut (daca m-ai fi ascultat). propozitia principala se refera la prezent (nu ai fi acum aici).

unless in loc de if
unless inlocuieste doua negatii printr-o negatie si o afirmatie. * Ex. de informatie care poate fi exprimata prin if sau prin unless, cu schimbare din negativ in afirmativ: Nu mi-as lua palaria daca tie nu ti-ar placea (tip II). I wouldnt take the hat if you didnt like it.

Sau

I wouldnt take the hat unless you liked it.

Obs.: fraza cu unless mai poate fi tradusa nu as lua palaria fara ca tie sa-ti placa in acest caz se vede clar la care verb avem afirmatia si la care negatia.

Conditionala cu but for in loc de daca n-ar fi/daca n-ar fi fost


Sau:

Daca n-ar fi scoala, am pleca in vacanta.(tip II) If it werent for school, we would leave on holiday.

But for school, we would leave on holiday.


Daca n-ar fi fost scoala, am fi plecat in vacanta.(tip III) If it hadnt been for school we would have gone on holiday. But for school, we would have gone on holiday.

Sau:

Inversiuni
Sau

Daca el ar fi fost acolo, mi-ar fi adus ceva.(tip III) If he had been there he would have brought me something.

Had he been there, he would have brought me something. (mai ales in limbaj formal) Obs.: la conditionala tip III had trece in locul lui if, care dispare. # Acelasi lucru se poate aplica si in cazul conditionalei de tip II, dar doar cand avem weredupa daca. Daca as fi in locul tau, as invata mai mult.(tip II) If I were you I would learn more.
Sau Were

I you, I would learn more. (mai ales in limbaj formal)