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Liquids Have No Shape Of Their Own.

HYD. CLASSIFICATION
Fundamentals System Components

Hydraulic Uses
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Basic Hydraulic Fundamentals

Topics
Purpose. Type Of Energy. Benefits . Hydraulics Principles. Hydraulics Terminology.

DO I HAVE YOUR ATTENT ION? !

Purpose

Provide an understanding of basic hydraulic principles, components & functions

Kinds of Energy

Mechanical Electrical Chemical Fluid

Benefits of Fluid Power


Readily Transmitted Around Corners Efficient


Speed Cost

Pascals Law

Pressure exerted on a confined liquid is transmitted

undiminished in all directions and acts with equal force on all equal areas.

Why We Use Fluid in Hydraulic:

Liquids have no shape of their own.

Liquids are practically incompressible.

Liquids transmit applied pressure in all directions.

Assignment

Find ?

HYD. PRINCIPLES
HYD: STUDY OF FLUID IN MOTION. TRANSFER MECH.HP (ENGINE) TO HYD.HP(PUMPS) TO MECH HP AGAIN( ACTUATORS). HYD :LINEAR & ROTORY MOTIONS

HYD. PRINCIPLES
Mech.Power

Hyd.Power

Controls

Mech.power

Principles of Hydraulics

Compressibility of Fluids Pascal's Law

Orifice Effect

Restriction in lines diminishes oil flow.

No Restriction

Orifice offers restriction

Hydraulics Terminology

Pressure - force acting on area (psi) Force - pressure times area (pounds) Flow - movement of a fluid (gpm). Area a measurement of surface space.

CONVERSION FACTORS

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Liter / Minute = 0.2641721 Gallon / Minute Gallon / Minute = 3,785412 Liter / Minute Bar = 14.50377 PSI PSI = 0.06894757 Bar Bar = 100 kPa (kilo pascal) kPa = 0.01 Bar PSI = 6.894757 kPa kPa = 0.1450377 PSI cm3 = 0.264 Inch 3 cm2 = 0.155 Inch 2 mm = 0.039 Inch

Hydraulic System Components

Topics
Hydraulic System Components. Hydraulic System Components Functions.

Hydraulic System Components


Oil Tank Pump Lines Valve Actuator Filter Cooler

Functions of oil

Cleans Cools Lubricates Supports Antifreeze. Transmit power.

Tank

Stores fluid Allows for fluid expansion Helps Cool Helps prevent cavitation

Hoses and Couplings


Connect system components Transport fluid

Hydraulic Hoses

Hose Types 1. Inner tube 2. Reinforcement layer 3. Friction layer 4. Outer cover
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 XT-3 XT-5 XT-6 716 844 556 1130 1028 294 4 spiral 4/6 spiral 6 spiral Hi press. Hi Hi 2500-4000 psi 5000 psi 6000 psi 625-2750 psi 100-300 psi 500-3000 psi 250-1500 psi 1250-3000 psi 2250-5000 psi

One-wire braid Med/Lo Hyd. Suction Med/Lo

One-wire braid Med/Lo Eng/Air brake Med/Lo

Thermoplastic Med/Lo Two-wire braid Med/Lo

Hydraulic Hoses
Types of Hose Coupling
1. Crimp On permanent not reusable all pressure applications

2. Screw Type reusable Lo & Med pressure applications Field-assembled using hand tools 3. Collet Type reusable Hi pressure applications Field-assembled using hand press

Coupling ends :
1. Flange type two different thickness ends for some given size hoses, determined by maximum system pressure 2. Threaded connector type many different ends hose 1.25 inch

Filters

Clean system

Standard Fine

Filter Classifications:

Fluid Conditioners

1. Surface 2. Depth-type

3 3 1. Cartridge filter 2. Canister filter

1 1

2 2

3. Screen

Oil Flow Through Filter

Filter Bypass Valve

Pumps and Motors

Pumps

Convert mechanical energy to fluid energy

Motors

Fluid energy to mechanical energy

1- GEAR PUMPS - CONSTANT FLOW

Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Gear Pumps

External
Advantages :
Simpler system Compact design Handle debris well Long life low cost

Internal
Disadvantages :
Fixed displacement Input speed must be increased to get more flow output High horsepower draw

Where used :
Engine oil pumps Transmission pumps Low pressure hydraulic system

2- VANE PUMPS CONSTANT FLOW

Hydraulic Pumps & Motors


Vane Pump
1.housing 2. cartridge 3. mounting plate 4. mounting plate seal 5. cartridge seals 6. cartridge backup rings 7. snap rings 8. input shaft and bearing

Cartridge : 9. support plates 10. ring 11. flex plates 12. slotted rotor 13. vanes

3- PISTON PUMPS VARIABLE FLOW

Hydraulic Pumps & Motors

Piston Pump

Fixed Displacement

1. head 2. housing 3. shaft 4. pistons 5. port plate 6. barrel 7. swash plate

Variable Displacement

Valves

Control direction, flow and pressure


Directional Check Relief

Pressure Valves
Simple Pressure Relief Valve
Cracking Pressure

Relief Pressure Setting

Directional Control Valve Valve Spool

Open Center Directional Control Valve

in HOLD

RAISED

Raise Position

Flow Control Valves Check Valve

With A Fixed Orifice

Variable Orifice

HYD Control VALVES

Directional

Pressure

Flow

Cylinders

Converts hydraulic energy to mechanical force


Positioning Actuating Specialty

1- Single Acting Cylinder :

2- Double Acting Cylinder :

Hydraulic Cylinders

Single Acting Cylinder

Vertical Lift Gravity Return Operation

Double Acting Cylinder

Hydraulic Cylinders
Seals

OIL COOLING
Cooler

SIMPLE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT


1 7 8 9 2

5
6

1- Tank. 2- Screen filter. 3- Pump

4. Relief valve. 5- Control valves. 6- Cylinder.

7-Oil cooler. 8- Lines. 9- Oil (fluid).

Ways Uses Hydraulics


Implement control Steering Brakes

Thanks for your attention

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