# QUEUING THEORY

WAITING LINE ANALYSIS

QUEUING THEORY INTRODUCTION
• • • • • • • • Definition and Structure Characteristics Importance Models Assumptions Examples Measurements Applying it to SCM

WHAT IS THE QUEUING THEORY?
• Queue- a line of people or vehicles waiting for something • Queuing Theory- Mathematical study of waiting lines, using models to show results, and show opportunities, within arrival, service, and departure processes

STRUCTURE

Input source

Queue Discipline

Service Facility

Served Customers

Balking Customers Reneging Customers

and. This is balking. This phenomenon is called as reneging of queue. few customers become impatient and may leave the queue. thus. pertains to the discouragement of customer for not joining an improper or inconvenient queue. . After being in queue for some time. insufficient waiting space or improper care while customers are in queue.CUSTOMER BEHAVIORS • Balking of Queue Some customers decide not to join the queue due to their observation related to the long length of queue. • Reneging of Queue Reneging pertains to impatient customers.

Number of servers available to service the customers.CHARACTERISTICS • Arrival Process • The probability density distribution that determines the customer arrivals in the system. Single channel N independent channels Multi channels Single Queue Series or Tandem Cyclic -Network Number of Servers Number of Channels • Number of Phases/Stages • • • • Queue Discipline -Selection for Service -Priority • First com first served (FCFS or FIFO) • Last in First out (LIFO) Random . • • • Service Process • • • • • The probability density distribution that determines the customer service times in the system.

continuously. the service delay in the system increases. -When a system gets congested. • Queuing Theory provides all the tools needed for this analysis. .IMPORTANCE OF THE QUEUING THEORY -Improve Customer Service. • A good understanding of the relationship between congestion and delay is essential for designing effective congestion control for any system.

• Different models for different situations (Like SimQuick. we noticed different measures for arrival and service times) • Exponential • Normal • Constant • Etc. .QUEUING MODELS • Calculates the best number of servers to minimize costs.

QUEUING MODELS CALCULATE: • Average number of customers in the system waiting and being served • Average number of customers waiting in the line • Average time a customer spends in the system waiting and being served • Average time a customer spends waiting in the waiting line or queue. . • Probability no customers in the system • Probability n customers in the system • Utilization rate: The proportion of time the system is in use.

• Not a complex problem: • Queuing Theory is not intended for complex problems. • Variable service times and arrival times are used to decide what model to use. We have seen this in class. where this are many decision points and paths to take. confusing. time consuming.ASSUMPTIONS • Different for every system. This can become tedious. and ultimately useless. .

bank teller.EXAMPLES OF QUEUING THEORY • Outside customers (Commercial Service Systems) -Barber shop. traffic lights • Social Service Systems -Judicial System. healthcare • Business or Industrial –Production lines . cafeteria line • Transportation Systems -Airports.

The Queuing Theory may be used to determine the appropriate level of capacity required at manufacturing facilities and the staffing levels required at service facilities. long lines result in high response times and dissatisfied customers.HOW THE QUEUING THEORY IS USED IN SCM • Supply Chain Management use simulations and mathematics to solve many problems. over the nominal average capacity required to service expected demand without these surges. It is used to study situations in which customers (or orders placed by customers) form a line and wait to be served by a service or manufacturing facility. Clearly. . • The Queuing Theory is an important tool used to model many supply chain problems.

WHEN IS THE QUEUING THEORY USED? • • • • Research problems Logistics Product scheduling Ect… .

. time.TERMINOLOGY Customers: independent entities that arrive at random times to a server and wait for some kind of service. length of time depends on type of service. Customers are served based on first in first out (FIFO) Time: real. Server: can only service one customer at a time. continuous. then leave.

• Queue: customers that have arrived at server and are waiting for their service to start • Queue Length at time t: number of customers in the queue at that time • Waiting Time: how long a customer has to wait between arriving at the server and when the server actually starts the service .

LITTLE’S LAW • The mean queue length or the average number of customers (N) can be determined from the following equation: • N= T • lambda is the average customer arrival rate and T is the average service time for a customer. * Finding ways to reduce flow time can lead to reduced costs and higher earnings .

Poisson process. Because of the mathematical nature of this exponential distribution.POISSON DISTRIBUTION POISSON ROLE IN THE ARRIVAL AND SERVICE PROCESS: Poisson (or random) processes: means that the distribution of both the arrival times and the service times follow the exponential distribution. An arrival process where customers arrive one at a time and where the interval s between arrivals is described by independent random variables . we can find many relationships based on performance which help us when looking at the arrival rate and service rate.

FACTORS OF A QUEUING SYSTEM • When do customers arrive? • Are customer arrivals increased during a certain time (restaurant.Denny’s: breakfast. How much time will customers spend • Do customers typically leave in a fixed amount of time? • Does the customer service time vary with the type of customer? . dinner) Or is the customer traffic more randomly distributed (a caféstarbucks) • Depending on what type of Queue line. lunch.

• Number of Servers: Amount of servers available to provide service to the customers .IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS • Arrival Process: The probability distribution that determines the customer arrivals in the system. • Service Process: determines the customer service times in the system.

accurately.PROS AND CONS OF QUEUING THEORY Positives Negatives • Helps the user to easily interpret data by looking at different scenarios quickly. Poisson Distribution and service time • Curse of variabilitycongestion and wait time increases as variability increases • Oversimplification of model . and easily • Can visually depict where problems may occur. providing time to fix a future error • Applicable to a wide range of topics • Based on assumptions ex.

• Relies too heavily on behavior and characteristics of people to work smoothly with the model . service time.LIMITATIONS • Mathematical models put a restriction on finding real world solutions • Ex: Often assume infinite customers. In reality there are such limitations. queue capacity.

TYPES OF QUEUING SYSTEMS • A population consists of either an infinite or a finite source. • Workstations are classified as phases in a queuing system. • Channels are essentially lines. . • The number of servers can be measured by channels (capacity of each server) or the number of servers.

TYPES OF QUEUING SYSTEMS • Single Channel Single Phase: Trucks unloading shipments into a dock. .

TYPES OF QUEUING SYSTEMS • Single Line Multiple Phase: McDonald’s Drive Thru -> Order + Pay/Pickup .

TYPES OF QUEUING SYSTEMS • Multiple Line Single Phase: Drive-Thru Pharmacy .

TYPES OF QUEUING SYSTEMS • Multiple Line Multiple Phase: Hospital Outpatient Clinic. Multi-specialty .

MEASURING QUEUING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE • Average number of customers waiting (in the queue or in the system) • Average time waiting • Capacity utilization • Cost of capacity • The probability that an arriving customer will have to wait and if so for how long. .

the system has “n” number of servers .• Queuing systems can then be classified as A/S/n A (Arrival Process) and S (Service Process) can be any of the following: Markov (M): exponential probability density (Poisson Distribution) Deterministic (D): Customers arrival is processed consistently “N”: Number of servers “G”: General.

NOTATION A/B/X/Y/Z • • • • • A = letter for arrival distribution B = letter for service distribution x = number of service channels y = number allowed in queue z = queue discipline .

EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT QUEUING SYSTEMS • M/M/1 (A/S/n) • Arrival Distribution: Poisson rate (M) tells you to use exponential probability • Service Distribution: again the M signifies an exponential probability • 1 represents the number of servers .

but service is deterministic. ex: a ticket booking counter with n cashiers. • The system has n servers. G/G/n • .M/D/n • -Arrival process is Poisson.A general system in which the arrival and service time processes are both random .

• A single car uses a very small percentage of the highway resources. (single customer consumes a very small percentage of the system resources) • All customers are independent (their decision to use the system are independent of other users) • Cars on a Highway • Total number of cars driving on the highway is very large.• M/M/1 queuing systems assume a Poisson arrival process. • Decision to enter the highway is independently made by each car driver. This Assumptions is a good approximation for the arrival process in real systems: • The number of customers in the system is very large. POISSON ARRIVALS . • Impact of a single customer on the performance of the system is very small.

This queuing system can be applied to a wide variety of problems as any system with a very large number customers. the service time can be assumed to be same for all customers • G/G/n: This is the most general queuing system where the arrival and service time processes are both arbitrary. Since all customers are treated the same.SUMMARY • M/M/1: The system consists of only one server. The system has n servers. • M/D/n: Here the arrival process is poison and the service time distribution is deterministic. The system has n servers. .

• One model assumes variable service time while the other assumes constant service time.QUEUING MODEL ANALYSIS • Two simple single-server models help answer meaningful questions and also address the curse of utilization and the curse of variability. .

The mean arrival rate is the same as the mean departure rate. • 3: The mean service rate is constant. • 2: The mean arrival rate is constant. .THREE IMPORTANT ASSUMPTIONS • 1: The system is in a steady state. This rate is independent in the sense that customers won’t leave when the line is long. This rate is independent in the sense that servers won’t speed up when the line is longer.

• μ = mean service rate per server = average number of units that a server can process per period. time between arrivals. • 1/λ = mean inter arrival time.PARAMETERS FOR QUEUING MODELS • λ = mean arrival rate = average number of units arriving at the system per period. • 1/μ = mean service time • m = number of servers .

with 200 cars per hour coming through (λ) and only 120 cars being served per hour (μ). meaning that the toll booth needs 2 servers to accommodate the passing cars. then: • μ (mean inter arrival time) = 1/30 cars per second • 60 seconds/minute * 1/30 cars per second = 2 cars per minute • 2 cars per minute * 60 minutes/hour = 120 cars per hour • Thus.PARAMETER EXAMPLES • λ (mean arrival rate) = 200 cars per hour through a toll booth • If it takes an average of 30 seconds to exchange money at a toll booth.67. the ratio of λ/μ is 1. .

PERFORMANCE MEASURES • System Utilization = Proportion of the time that the server is busy. • Mean time that a person or unit spends in the system (In Queue or in Service) • Mean time that a person or unit spends waiting for service (In Queue) • Mean number of people or units in the system (In Queue or in Service) • Mean number of people or units in line for service (In Queue) • Probability of n units in the system (In Queue or in Service) .

FORMULAS FOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES • mμ = Total Service Rate = Number of Servers * Service Rate of Each Server • System Utilization = Arrival Rate/Total Service Rate = λ/mμ • Average Time in System = Average time in queue + average service time • Average number in system = average number in queue + average number in service • Average number in system = arrival rate * average time in system • Average number in queue = arrival rate * average time in queue .

PERFORMANCE FORMULAS (CONTD.) • Though these seem to be common sense. the values of these formulas can easily be determined but depend on the nature of the variation of the timing of arrivals and service times in the following queuing models: .

the entire system consists of 3 customers. • Thus. . then there are two units “in queue”.SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS • Drive-Thru Example: • If one car is ordering. • If two cars are waiting behind the car in service. then there is one unit “in service”.

• Average flow time will skyrocket as resource utilization gets close to 100%. they will probably have an easier time completing assignments than someone who is taking 5. even though the person taking 5 classes is utilizing their time more in terms of academics. if one person is only taking 3 classes next semester. but this could lead to poor service or performance.THE CURSE OF UTILIZATION • One hundred percent utilization may sound good from the standpoint of resources being used to the maximum potential. • For example. .

.THE CURSE OF VARIABILITY • When you remove variance from service time. Thus. then line congestion and wait times increase as well. lines decrease and waiting time does as well. as variability increases.

it is more likely to pay off when the system has a higher resource utilization.) • The sensitivity of system performance to changes in variability increases with utilization. • To provide better service. systems with high variability should operate at lower levels of resource utilization than systems with lower variability. when you try to lower variance.THE CURSE OF VARIABILITY (CONTD. • Thus. .

) • Exponential distribution shows a high degree of variability.) model predicts and worse than what the M/D/1 (Const. the standard deviation of service time is equal to the mean service time. actual performance is better than what the M/M/1 (Exp. • Constant service times shows no variation at all. . • Therefore.THE CURSE OF VARIABILITY (CONTD.) model predicts.

QUESTIONS? .

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