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Agents of

Microevolution
Mutation
hemoglobin sickle cell Hb
tetramer (forms long
tubular rods)
Mutation(ex.,CFTR gene)
► Found on chromosome 7
► Codes for a protein that is 1,480 amino acids
long
► Deletion of 3 nucleotides at positions 507-508
in the CFTR protein
► Results to the genetic disorder “cystic
fibrosis”
► Common among Caucasian-Americans, one in
every 2,000 births
CFTR gene mutation
  A
   T ISOLEUCINE 506
 C
  A
 
 T      ISOLEUCINE 507
 C                               -->    ISOLEUCINE 
507      
  T                                              
   T      PHENYLALANINE 508    --> NO 508
 T
  G
   G      GLYCINE 509 
 T
  G
 T      VALINE 510
 T
Protein coded for by CFTR gene
Migration
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck
effect
Geneticall
y diverse

Genetic
diversit
y lost
Genetic drift: Bottleneck
effect
► Caused by intense competition, adverse
environmental conditions, or parasitism
► Increases the rate of random genetic drift
► Inbreeding is also increased due to reduced
genetic pool
► Reduces resistance to parasites and
diseases, & the ability to respond to
environmental changes
► Genetic variation is reduced
Population bottleneck Northern
elephant seal
► By 1910, it is
estimated that
there were less
than 100
elephant seals, all
found on
Guadalupe island,
in Mexico.
► Present
population is
estimated to be
more than
150,000.
Population bottleneck
► Exhibits almost
no allelic
variation
► Assumed to have
survived a great,
persistent
population
bottleneck some Cheetah
10,000 years ago
Genetic drift: Founder effect
► exemplified by the Dunkers of
Pennsylvania
► Result of blood type survey: Nearly 60
% of the Dunkers had blood type A;
the West German population was 45 %
A and the US neighbor population was
only 40 %.
► Little dispersal; new allele
predominates
Nonrandom mating
► Inbreeding
lessens
heterozygosity
► Increases the
chance of
producing
offsprings with
defective
genes
Ellis van Creveld syndrome
Royal family afflicted with
hemophilia
Selection: Natural selection
► Stabilizing selection limits extremes
of population
► Examples: human birth weight,
gallmaking fly Eurosta
► Operates in stable habitats
Stabilizing
selection

Eurytoma
gigantea
(wasp)

Eurosta solidaginis
(fly), laying its eggs
on goldenrod
(Solidago altissima)
stem
Downy woodpecker
► Directional
selection- a single
allele is favored;
allele frequency
continuously shifts
to one direction
► The population is
faced with a new
environmental
condition
Disruptive selection- intermediate
forms are selected against