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Macroevolution

Pre-mating isolation (loss of ability to mate
with closely related species):
Ecological
Behavioral
Temporal
Mechanical
Gametic

Post-mating isolation:
Zygotic mortality
Hybrid inviability
Hybrid sterility
Hybrid sterility (cross between horse
and donkey, producing a mule)
Population of diploid individuals

Sympatric
speciation

Diploid
gamete
s

Tetraploids
Parapatric
speciation
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF
MASS EXTINCTION:
 Climate change (glaciation)
 Impact event (e.g., meteorite,
comet): megatsunamis, forest
fires, continental drift
 Volcanism
200-300 km
crater believed to
be formed by an
object about 10-
20 km in size.
This crater was
found in 1980
after searching
for the K-T
crater. It lies
under 1 km of
debris.
Iridium hill (believed to be a
consequence of the K-T event)
Causes of present day
extinction of species:
 Habitat destruction
 Overhunting/overharvesting
 Pollution
 Genetic assimilation
 Introduction of exotic species
 Competition, diseases, predation
 coextinction
Poaching (Overhunting)
Major problems: clogging municipal power plant and industry
water supply systems, causing odour and taste problems in
drinking water, fouling beaches, parks and recreational areas,
disrupting aquatic food chains.

Example
of exotic
species:
Zebra
mussel
Historical
causes of
biogeographic
distributions:
a) plate tectonics,
b)sea level
changes, & c)
major climate
change
Continental Drift Theory
(Alfred Wegener, 1912)
 Similar shapes of the coastlines on
either side of the Atlantic (Brazil &
Africa)
 Rock type and structural similarities
 Fossil evidence (Mesosaurus, fossil
remains limited to eastern S. America
& S. Africa; Glossopteris, fossil fern-
widely dispersed in Africa, Australia,
India, S. America, & Antarctica during
the late Paleozoic era)
Nearctic
Paleartic

Orienta
l
Ethiopia
n

Neotropic
al
Mesosaurus, 280 million
year-old swimming reptile Glossopteris
Plants from family Proteaceae
Current range of Proteaceae
EVIDENCES FROM PALEONTOLOGY
Fossilization process
Fossilization
process
EVIDENCES FROM
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
Homologous structures
Analogous structures
Analogous
structures
Convergent evolution
(example)
Rudimentary
hindlimbs in
whale and
python
Evidences
from
embryo-
logy
EVIDENCES FROM BIOCHEMISTRY
 DNA as the genetic material of life
 All known living organisms use
proteins made up of basically the
same subset of 20-22 amino acids,
out of the 390 naturally occurring
 Similarity in metabolic pathways,
enzymes, & energy storage
compound