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pH

the measure of the activity of dissolved hydronium ions in a solution measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution -log[H+]

Methods of pH Determination

Quantitative method pH meter Advantage: more accurate measurement of pH Drawbacks: need for reference electrode, instrumental drift, susceptibility to electrical reference, need for physical contact with the solution

Qualitative methods pH paper use of indicator solutions Advantages: simplicity of operation, less expensive, no need to have contact with the solution Drawbacks: subjectivity of pH readings, the need for different indicator solutions since certain solutions are only applicable for certain pH ranges

Buffer solution
an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid a solution that resists drastic pH changes The most effective pH range for any buffer (the pH is most resistant to change) is at or near the pH where the acid and salt concentrations are equal (that is pKa). Most efficient buffer: pKa = pH Acceptable buffer: pKa = pH 1.

Colorimetric Analysis of pH
uses the variation as a means of determining pH since the color of a solution changes with its concentration or pH The pH of a solution can be determined by comparing the color intensities of the solution of unknown pH with the color intensities of the solutions with known pH

Experiment objectives:
Explain the colorimetric determination of pH colorimetrically determine the pH of an unknown solution compare and differentiate the hue intensities of solutions with pH plus the proper indicator calculate the acid dissociation constant (Ka) of a weak acid

Preparation of McIlvaine Buffer Solutions


In separate test tubes, add the required amount of 0.1 M citric acid and 0.2 M Na2HPO4.

Add 2 drops of the proper indicator.

pH 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8

mL DSP 0.1 0.31 0.53 0.79 1.025 1.235 1.425 1.61 1.775 1.625 2.07 2.205 2.335 2.465 2.575 2.6 2.79 2.9 3.025

mL CA 4.9 4.69 4.46 4.21 3.98 3.77 3.58 3.39 3.23 3.08 2.93 2.8 2.67 2.54 2.43 2.4 2.21 2.1 1.98

Indicator Thymol blue Thymol blue Thymol blue Thymol blue Bromophenol blue Bromophenol blue Bromophenol blue Bromophenol blue

pH 5.8 6 6 6.2

mL DSP 3.025 3.155 3.155 3.305

mL CA 1.98 1.85 1.85 1.7

Indicator Chlorophenol red Bromothymol bue Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red

6.2
6.4 6.4 6.6 6.8

3.305
3.46 3.46 3.67 3.86 3.86 4.12 4.12 4.345 4.345 4.54 4.54 4.685 4.685 4.785 4.86

1.7
1.54 1.54 1.33 1.14 1.14 0.88 0.88 0.66 0.66 0.46 0.46 0.32 0.32 0.22 0.14

Bromothymol bue
Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red Bromothymol bue Bromothymol bue Phenol red Bromothymol bue Phenol red Bromothymol bue Phenol red Bromothymol bue Phenol red Bromothymol bue Phenol red Phenol red Phenol red

Bromophenol blue 6.8 Bromophenol blue 7 Bromophenol blue 7 Bromophenol blue Bromophenol blue Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red Chlorophenol red 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.6 7.8 8

Determination of pH
Test tube 1: Add 2 drops of indicator to 0.1 M HOAc

Test tube 2: Add 2 drops of indicator to 1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8 mL H2O
Test tube 3: Add 2 drops of1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 0.1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H2O Test tube 4: Add 2 drops of indicator to 0.1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H2O

Solution

Observed pH

Calculated pH Xxx

0.1 M HOAc

3.4

1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8 mL H2O 1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 0.1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H2O 0.1mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H2O

4.78

3.78

5.78