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Group members: 1. TAN PEI YING 2. CHUA BOON YEN No. Matriks A133043 A133611
3. YEU WEE CHEK
RAW MATERIALS ACQUISITION
2. RAW MATERIAL / KILN FEED PREPARATION 3. PYROPROCESSI NG 4. CEMENT GRINDING
and shales • Forms of Calcium Sulfate • Excavated from quarries or mines • Obtained from ores and minerals such as sand. iron • Highest concentration in portland cement • Obtained from a variety of calcareous raw materials • Can significantly increase emissions of sulfur dioxide • Found in deposits of limestone.Step 1: Raw Material Acquisition Calcium Pockets of pyrite Gypsum/ Natural Anhydrite Silicon. aluminium. clay and iron ore . clays. shale.
(left) obtain calcium from limestone (calcium carbonate) (right) pyrite. usually found in deposits of limestone. clays and shales. .
-It will be added together with clinker inside grinding mill ( function to prevent flash setting of concrete) .-Gypsum (or natural anhydrite) excavated from quarries or mines.
Step 2: The Raw Mix or Kiln Feed Preparation For Pyroprocess operation • Variety of blending and sizing operations Wet and Dry process Raw materials are received with an initial moisture content varying from 1 to more than 50 percent .
paddle-equipped rapid dryers. air separator.Step 2: (I) Dry Process Moisture is reduced less than 1% before grinding • Impact dryers. oil / gas burners . drum dryers. or autogenous mills During grinding in ball-and-tube mills or roller mills • Thermal Energy for drying which is supplied by exhaust gasses from separate.direct fired coal.
belt conveyors and drag conveyors Dry raw mix • Pneumatically blended • Stored in specially constructed silos .Material transport associated with dry raw milling system • Accomplished by a variety mechanism exp : screw conveyors.
blended Stored in various kinds and sizes of cylinder tanks or slurry basins .Wet Process Water is added to the raw mill. producing a pumpable slurry The slurry is agitated.
Step 3 : Pyroprocessing System Heart of manufacturing of cement Transforms the raw mix into clinkers The Chemical reations and physical processes that constitute the transformation are quite complex .
Chemical & Physical Processes Evaporation of water Formation of the clinker nodules Evaporation of volatile constituents Evolution of combined water in the argillaceous components Reaction of CaO with the aluminium and ironbearing constituents to form the liquid phase Reaction of Excess CaO with dicalcium silicate to form tricalcium silicate Calcination of the calcium carbonate to calcium oxide Reaction of CaO with silica to form dicalcium silicate .
aluminium and iron Calcination • Carbon dioxide is evolved in the temperature of 900 ̊C to form Carbon Oxide in the temperature of 982 ̊C Reaction of oxides ---T≈1510 ̊----> cement clinker • Occur in the burning zone of the rotary kiln .4 Stages Evaporation of uncombined water from raw materials • Materials temperatures increased to 100 ̊C Dehydration • Materials temperature increases from 100 ̊C– 430 ̊C to form oxides of silica.
scrap rubber.Rotary Kilns • long cylinder rotating about its axis once every minute or two. The axis is inclined at a slight angle. and petroleum coke . and oil • Waste solvents. Most commonly used kiln fuels Used of supplementary fuels • Coal. the end with the burner being lower. natural gas.
(where pyroprocessing can take place) .Left: Cement Kiln That We Can Usually See Inside Laboratory. Right: High Efficiency Cement Kiln System Inside Factory.
Five different processes to accomplish the pyroprocessing step • Wet process • Long Dry process • Semidry process • Dry process with a preheater • Dry Process with a precalciner .
Wet Process and Long Dry Process Occurs in rotary kiln • rotary kiln are simple & shorter • Provided at the feed end of the kiln in the drying or preheat zones to improve heat transfer from the hot gases to the solid materials • Causes the hot chains to fall into the cooler materials at the bottom of the kiln. then transfer the heat to the load System of Chain Kiln Rotation .
Dry Process Pyroprocessing System Preheater process • Additional of one or more cyclone-type preheater vessels in the gas stream exiting the rotary kiln .
Hot exhaust gases from the rotary kiln pass counter currently through the downward-moving raw materials in the preheater vessels. The hot gases are used as a source of heat for drying raw materials in the raw mill It is a production mechanics and pollution control devices because the catch from the mechanical collectors. and electrostatic precipitators (ESP) will follow the raw mill returned to the process . fabric filters.
Dry Process Pyroprocessing System Preheater / precailciner process • Additional thermal efficiency & productive gain is achieved by diverting some fuel to a cailciner vessel at the base of the preheater tower Amount of the fuel • Determined by the availability and source of the oxygen for combustion in the calciner .
Preheater and Precalciner Kiln System Have an alkali bypass system The alkali content is limited • To remove the undesirable volatile constituents (recirculate to the kiln) • It can restrict process and gas flow • Can cause deleterious reactions in concrete .
Semidry Process The water is added to the dry raw mix in a pelletizer • To form moist nodules or pellets Conveyed on a moving grate preheater before being fed to the rotary kiln The pellets are dried and partially calcined by hot kiln exhaust gases passing through the moving gate .
Clinker Cooler Last component of the pyroprocessing system Recoups up to 30 percent of the heat input to the kiln system Locks in desirable product qualities by freezing mineralogy Makes it possible to handle the cooled clinker with conventional conveying equipment It is cooled from about1100°C to 93°C (2000°F to 200°F) by ambient air .
Common types Reciprocating grate cooler • Reciprocating grate • Planetary • Rotary • Lower clinker discharge temperature are achieved by passing an additional quantity of air through the clinker • Cannot be utilized in the kiln for efficient combustion • Vented to the atmosphere • Used for drying coal or raw materials or as combustion air source for precalciner Additional air .
Clinker Storage Normally store 5-25% of its annual clinker production capacity Equipment used to transfer the clinker from coolers to storage areas and to the finish mill are conveyors and bucket elevators Gravity drops and transfer points typically are vented to dust collectors .
with product sizing by air separation . finishing is conducted in a closed circuit system.Final Step: Finish Grinding Mill Up to 5 percent gypsum or natural anhydrite is added to the clinker during grinding • To control the cement setting time blending and grinding operations that transform clinker to finished portland cement Other specialty chemicals are added as needed • To impart specific product properties Finish milling is accomplished almost exclusively in ball or tube mills. Typically.
`Grinding Mill .
or in 43kg (94 pound) multiwalled paper bags . or barge.Packing and Loading Finished product is transferred using bucket elevators and conveyors to large. storage silos on the shipping department The portland cement is transported in bulk by railway. truck.
Packing & Despatch .
Environmental Issues • The combustion of fuel in rotary cement kilns generates nitrogen oxides from the nitrogen in the fuel or incoming combustion air • Sulfur dioxide is generated from the sulfur compounds in the ores Air pollutants Liquid and Solid wastes • Overflow from slurry equipment • Stripped overburden • The combustion processes of cement kilns and rotary kilns have been used to dispose of hazardous waste material .
pyroprocessing. • Roughly. rawmix/ clink feed preparation. and grinding mill. dry process is more thermally efficient and save cost.CONCLUSION: • The manufacturing of Portland cement required a sequence of process. we can convenient the process into 4 main steps : raw material acquisition. • Comparing the wet process and dry process. .
THE END .
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