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An Introduction to Fungicides – Part 2
When you complete this section, you should be able to answer these questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
What are the two major groups of fungicides? What are three ways to classify chemically-based fungicides? What categories are used to classify fungicides by topical activity? What is meant by ‘mode of action’ of a fungicide? How are fungicides differentiated by ‘mode of action’? What is the difference between preventive control and curative control? 1. What is ‘incubation period’ and why is it important in regard to selection and use of fungicides? 8. What factors enhance fungicide efficacy?
How are groups of fungicides classified?
There are two major groups of fungicides 1. biologically based fungicides (biofungicides) 2. chemically based fungicides
Contain living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) that are antagonistic to the pathogens that cause turf disease. Examples: Ecoguard – contains Bacillus licheniformis Bio-Trek 22G – contains Trichoderma harzianum
In the case of a biofungicide, the latin name of the microbe that it contains is the generic name of the fungicide.
Chemically-Based Fungicides Synthesized from organic and inorganic chemicals Most of the fungicides that are sold throughout the world are chemically-based .
Chemically-based fungicides can be classified (grouped) according to similarities in: 1. Mode of action . Chemical structure 2. Topical activity 3.
Grouping fungicides by chemical structure .
Grouping fungicides by chemical structure There are 29 generic names (active ingredients) associated with turfgrass fungicides. .
Active Ingredients (29) in Turf Fungicides propiconazole triadimefon myclobutanil fenarimol triticonazole tetraconazole fluoxastrobin trifloxystrobin azoxystrobin pyraclostrobin flutolanil boscalid polyoxin D thiophanate-methyl iprodione vinclozolin mefenoxam propamocarb fosetyl aluminum phosphonate quintozene chloroneb ethazole mancozeb thiram hydrogen dioxide chlorothalonil fludioxonil cyazofamid .
.Grouping fungicides by chemical structure These 29 names represent 16 groups that have similar chemical structures.
.Generic Names of Turf Fungicides (29) Chemical Groups (16) propiconazole triadimefon myclobutanil triticonazole tetraconazole triazoles DMI* fungicides fenarimol pyrimidines fluoxastrobin trifloxystrobin azoxystrobin pyraclostrobin strobilurins *Triazoles and Pyrimidines comprise a larger group of fungicides called demethylation inhbitors.
Generic Names of Turf Fungicides Chemical Group polyoxin D thiophanate-methyl iprodione vinclozolin mefenoxam polyoxins benzimidazoles dicarboxamides phenylamides propamocarb fosetyl aluminum phosphonate mancozeb thiram carbamates phosphonates dithiocarbamates .
Generic Names of Turf Fungicides quintozene chloroneb ethazole hydrogen dioxide chlorothalonil fludioxonil cyanofamid flutolanil boscalid Chemical Group aromatic hydrocarbons peroxides nitriles phenylpyrolles cyanoimidazole carboxamides .
which is in a different chemical group.It is important to know which fungicides are chemically related to one another. For example. . such as propiconazole. These fungicides differ chemically from a fungicide. Note that there may be anywhere from one to several fungicides per chemical group. and pyraclostrobin are chemically related to each other. trifloxistrobin. you should know that azoxystrobin.
For example. the strobilurin fungicides provide good to excellent control of anthracnose. it is probably not necessary to purchase another. . Since all fungicides in a chemical group control the same diseases. If you have purchased one strobilurin fungicide for control of these diseases. gray leaf spot and summer patch. it does not make sense to tank-mix fungicides that represent a common chemical group in order to expand the scope of control. tank-mixing two strobilurin fungicides will not work well because the strobilurins provide poor to weak control of dollar spot. For example.Why is it important to know which fungicides are chemically related to one another? All fungicides in a chemical group generally control the same diseases. brown patch. to control anthracnose and dollar spot.
.Why is it important to know which fungicides are chemically related to one another? 1. Pythium blight and anthracnose have developed resistance to fungicides in one or more chemical groups. the pathogen is usually resistant to all fungicides in that particular group. the fungi that cause dollar spot. In Georgia. If a pathogen develops resistance to one fungicide in a chemical group.
Grouping fungicides by topical activity (What happens to fungicides after they reach the plant surface?) .
Grouping fungicides by topical activity Fungicides can be placed into one of four groups based topical activity 1. Localized penetrants 3. Systemics . Contact fungicides 2. Acropetal penetrants 4.
cyanoimidazoles Contact fungicides act only on plant surfaces. aromatic hydrocarbons. stems or roots and cannot inhibit fungal development inside plants. nitriles.Contact Fungicides dithiocarbamates. phenylpyrolles. peroxides. . They are not absorbed by leaves.
strobilurins (except azoxystrobin and fluoxastrobin) Localized penetrant fungicides are absorbed by leaves and move short distances within a treated leaf. . they do not move from one leaf to another and they are not absorbed by roots. These fungicides inhibit fungi on treated plant surfaces and inside treated leaves.Localized Penetrant Fungicides dicarboximides.
Acropetal Penetrant Fungicides benzimidazoles. pyrimidines. . Acropetal penetrants inhibit fungi on and in treated plant surfaces and inside plant parts that lie above (acropetal to) the treated surface. plus the strobilurins azoxystrobin and fluoxastrobin Acropetal penetrants can penetrate plants through roots. shoots and leaves. triazoles. These fungicides are absorbed by the xylem and move upward (acropetally) in plants. carboximides. acylalanines.
Note that the phosphonates are the only systemic fungicides. These fungicides inhibit fungi on and in treated plant surfaces and inside plant parts that lie above or below the treated surfaces.Systemic Fungicides phosphonates Systemic fungicides are the only fungicides that are absorbed into xylem and phloem and move up and down in plants. .
Grouping Fungicides by Mode of Action (i.e. classifying fungicides by target site within a fungal cell) .
The body or thallus of most fungi exists as a microscopic network of cells called hyphae septum Septa divide hyphae into individual cells. .
A fungal cell contains many of the same organelles as other eukaryotes vacuole cell wall nucleus mitochondrion cell membrane ribosome .
Fungicides can be divided into 2 groups based on mode of action in fungal cells: 1. Multi-site inhibitors . Site-specific inhibitors 2.
Examples vacuole DMI fungicides – inhibit sterol synthesis in membranes benzimidazoles – inhibit DNA Synthesis carboxamides – inhibit respiration nucleus mitochondrion ribosome .Site-specific inhibitors target individual sites within the fungal cell.
Multisite inhibitors target many different sites in each fungal cell. fungal cell Vacuole Nucleus mitochondrion Examples nitrile fungicides dithiocarbamates peroxides Ribosome .
Topical activity – Turf fungicides can be divided into 4 groups based on topical activity. Why is it important to know this? 2.The 29 different active ingredients in turf fungicides comprise 16 different chemical groups. What are they and how do they differ from one another? . Mode of action – Turf fungicides can be divided into 2 groups based on mode of action. What are the groups and how do they differ from one another? 3.Summary Fungicides can be classified (grouped) according to similarities in: 1. Chemical structure .
Curative Control .Preventive vs.
Preventive vs. Curative Control Preventive Control – suppressing the growth of a pathogen before it infects and colonizes a plant. . Achieved by all contact. penetrant and systemic fungicides.
penetrant and systemic fungicides. Achieved by all contact. Curative Control Preventive Control – suppressing the growth of a pathogen before it infects and colonizes a plant. Curative Control – suppressing the growth of a pathogen after it infects and colonizes a plant. Achieved only by penetrant and systemic fungicides.Preventive vs. .
There is a delay of hours to weeks between infection by a pathogen and the expression of symptoms by a host Infection Symptoms .
many root diseases). During this period. . Pythium blight) to several weeks (anthracnose.This delay is know as the incubation period. dollar spot. the pathogen (fungus) colonizes plant cells but symptoms have not been expressed. Infection incubation period Symptoms early colonization by pathogen Incubation periods can range from several hours (brown patch.
infection – providing curative control Infection incubation period early pathogen colonization Symptoms .contact. penetrant and systemic fungicides work here – pre-infectionproviding preventive control only penetrants and systemics work here – post.
Enhancing Fungicide Efficacy Factors that increase the effectiveness and duration of disease control .
ft. of turf.Enhancing Fungicide Efficacy 1. Fungicide sprayers should be calibrated to deliver at least 2 gallons of water per 1000 sq. .
Flat fan or swirl chamber (raindrop) nozzles should be used for fungicide applications. These nozzles produce droplets that are too large for effective fungicide coverage.Enhancing Fungicide Efficacy 1.ft. Flood jet nozzles are not recommended. 2. Fungicide sprayers should be calibrated to deliver at least 2 gallons of water per 1000 sq. .
. Use a nozzle pressure between 30 and 60 psi.) with fungicides unless stated on the label. 5. wetting agents. stickers. etc. Do not tank-mix adjuvants (eg. 4. Rainfall or irrigation up to 4 hours after fungicide application may reduce efficacy.Enhancing Fungicide Efficacy 3.
Fungicides cannot be used to eradicate a fungus from turf or soil. .Remember 1. Fungicides can only be used to suppress growth of fungi for a relatively short period of time (approximately 5-28 days depending on the fungicide and fungus). 2.
End of IDM – Intro to Fungicides Part 2 .