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12 January 1815 . in the state of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (the modern German federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). . for his writings on the philosophy of language and mathematics. He is considered to be one of the founders of modern logic. and made major contributions to the foundations of mathematics. His father Carl (Karl) Alexander Frege (3 August 1809 . Mecklenburg-Schwerin (now Germany) Died: 26 July 1925 in Bad Kleinen. After Carl's death the school was led by Frege's mother Auguste Wilhelmine Sophie Frege (née Bialloblotzky.HISTORY Family and educational Background : Born: 8 Nov 1848 in Wismar. He was born in 1848 in Wismar. He is generally considered to be the father of analytic philosophy. Germany Frege was a German mathematician .30 November 1866) was the co-founder and headmaster of a girls' high school until his death. logician and philosopher.14 October 1898).

1850. who was also a poet. Wismar. and inventor). entitled Hülfsbuch zum Unterrichte in der deutschen Sprache für Kinder von 9 bis 13 Jahren (2nd ed. the first section of which dealt with the structure and logic of language. 1862). most of them on mathematics and physics. his father wrote a textbook on the German language for children aged 9 13... mathematician.1 September 1909).In childhood. Frege studied at a gymnasium in Wismar. . In the four semesters of his studies he attended approximately twenty courses of lectures. 3rd ed. His most important teacher was Ernst Karl Abbe (1840 1905) (physicist. Wismar and Ludwigslust: Hinstorff. Frege matriculated at the University of Jena in the spring of 1869 as a citizen of the North German Federation. played the most important role in determining Frege s future scientific career. For example. His teacher Gustav Adolf Leo Sachse (5 November 1843 . encouraging him to continue his studies at the University of Jena. Frege encountered philosophies that would guide his future scientific career. and graduated in 1869.

In 1873.His other notable university teachers were Christian Philipp Karl Snell (1806 1886). Frege continued his studies in Göttingen. the leading university in mathematics in German-speaking territories. Frege married Margarete Katharina Sophia Anna Lieseberg (15 February 1856 . Hermann Karl Julius Traugott Schaeffer (1824 1900). . Frege attained his doctorate under Ernst Schering. and the famous philosopher Kuno Fischer (1824 1907).25 June 1904) on March 14. Starting in 1871. 1887. in which he aimed to solve such fundamental problems in geometry as the mathematical interpretation of projective geometry's infinitely distant (imaginary) points. with a dissertation under the title of "Über eine geometrische Darstellung der imaginären Gebilde in der Ebene" ("On a Geometrical Representation of Imaginary Forms in a Plane").

It broke new ground. axiomatic predicate logic "conceptual notation can represent inferences involving indefinitely complex mathematical statements.) marked a turning point in the history of logic. eine logisch-mathematische Untersuchung über den Begriff der Zahl ( The Foundations of Arithmetic: the logicalmathematical Investigation of the Concept of Number. including a rigorous treatment of the ideas of functions and variables. eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formelsprache des reinen Denkens( Concept Notation. Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik. but in so doing he devised techniques that took him far beyond the Aristotelian syllogistic and Stoic propositional logic that had come down to him in the logical tradition.CONTRIBUTIONS TO LOGIC: The Begriffsschrift. Frege wanted to show that mathematics grows out of logic. the Formal Language of the Pure Thought like that of Arithmetics.) .

existing apart from the material and mental world. Frege applied Bedeutung in the first instance to proper names. which bedeuten the two "truth values". the true and the false. and the truth-values the True and the False. by contrast. Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (Basic Laws of Arithmetic) philosophy of logic . Logical functions. the sense or Sinn associated with a complete sentence is the thought it expresses. TO PHILOSOPHY: Theory of Sense and Reference. sense and reference are two different aspects of the significance of an expression. are thought to be objectively real entities. value-ranges. Function and Concept (1891) "Concept and Object" (1892) "What is a Function?" (1904) . The sense of an expression is said to be the "mode of presentation" of the item referred to. the object in question. logic is made true by a realm of logical entities. but then also to other expressions. including complete sentences. where it means the bearer of the name.

Logical Investigations (1918 1923). "Der Gedanke: Eine logische Untersuchung" ("Thought: A Logical Investigation") "Die Verneinung" ("Negation") "Gedankengefüge" ("Compound Thought") Philosophy of mathematics: Term Logic and Predicate Calculus Complex Statements and Generality Four special functional expressions to express complex and general statements: .

used to express the thought that the argument is a true statement. The function which maps The True to The False and maps all other objects to The True The function which maps a pair of objects to The False if the first (i.. and maps all other pairs of objects to The True The second-level function which maps a first-level concept to The True if maps every object to The True. named in the bottom branch) is The True and the second isn't The True.Intuitive Significance Statement Functional Expression The Function It Signifies The function which maps The True to The True and maps all other bjects to The False. otherwise it maps to The False.e. Negation Conditional Generality .

Frequently. And he criticized those mathematicians who developed piecemeal definitions or creative definitions. Frege criticized the mathematical practise of introducing notation to name (unique) entities without first proving that there exist (unique) such entities.Proof and Definition Proof. any finite sequence of statements such that each statement in the sequence either is an axiom or follows from previous members by a valid rule of inference. He developed powerful and insightful criticisms of mathematical work which did not meet his standards for clarity. II (1903. Frege was extremely careful about the proper description and definition of logical and mathematical concepts. . more inclusive range of concepts. He pointed out that such creative definitions were simply unjustified. Sections 56-67) Frege criticized the practice of defining a concept on a given range of objects and later redefining the concept on a wider. Definition. For example. since the redefined concept did not always reduce to the original concept when one restricts the range to the original class of objects. he criticized mathematicians who defined a variable to be a number that varies rather than an expression of language which can vary as to which determinate number it refers to. In that same work (1903. Sections 139-147). In the Grundgesetze der Arithmetik. this piecemeal style of definition led to conflict.

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