Anti-Aging and Gerontology

The thermodynamic theory of origin of life, biological evolution und aging in action: medical and nutrition recommendations for patients of any age
Georgi P. Gladyshev
International Academy of Creative Endeavors San Diego, USA – Moscow, Russia N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences Kosygina 4, Moscow, 117977 Russia

Hierarchical thermodynamics – general theory of existence and living world development

A4M Chicago 2006 July 14, 2006 - July 16, 2006

IoHT and Academy of Creative Endeavors
"Variation of ∆G corresponding to the formation of a certain structure, which can be a supramolecular structure, a family structure, a structure of populations, etc., is a measure of the evolutionary transformation (aging) of this structure."

Evolution of Life: How and Why?

Charles Robert Darwin

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck

n (ontogenesis)  phylogenesis

Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] – January 6, 1884)

EVOLUTION AND AGING Why? Motive power ?

∆G = ∆H – T∆S
Variation of ∆G is a measure of the evolutionary transformation of biological structures

Scientific physical theories
Any theory of aging should includes the thermodynamic aspects
Любые теории старения и эволюции живых объектов должны рассматривать термодинамические причины процессов

Hierarchical Thermodynamics
Georgi P. Gladyshev International Academy of Creative Endeavors N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences Chicago Institute of Human Thermodynamics **

Gibbs’ Theory and Hierarchical Thermodynamics
J. Willard Gibbs created the general thermodynamic theory, which is a strict physical theory applying to the whole real world. This theory has been of limited, or of questionable use in biology for the investigation of open systems. Recently (1977) the theory has been extended to real open biological systems and a hierarchical equilibrium thermodynamics has been created . A study of quasiclosed systems enables one to draw conclusions about the thermodynamic direction of biological evolution and aging of living beings.


Thermodynamics is a key theory of physics, chemistry, biology, and all natural sciences.
This statement would generally be accepted as a fact.

The second law and biological evolution
"One of the principal objects of theoretical research in any department of knowledge is to find the point of view from which the subject appears in its greatest simplicity." J. Willard Gibbs (1881)

"… the true and only goal of science is to reveal unity rather than mechanisms."
Henri Poincaré

Classical and non-classical formulations of the second law
• "During the last decades, an opinion has widely spread that there is the apparent contradiction between biological order and laws of physics—particularly the second law of thermodynamics“. I. Prigogine • I. Prigogine (1980) also emphasized that "this contradiction cannot be removed as long as one tries to understand living systems by the methods of equilibrium thermodynamics".

Mode in History
Alchemy as an investigation of Nature

Epoch of Communism

The scientific community generally considers astrology to be a pseudoscience

The second law of thermodynamics
In 1865, R. Clausius introduced the concept of entropy (S), a state function of a system (a function that has a full differential) according to the Clausius inequality: dS ≥ δQ / T , (1.1)
where the equality sign pertains to reversible processes and the inequality (greater-than) sign, to irreversible ones. Expression (1.1) is suitable for a simple isolated system, which can exchange neither substance nor energy with the environment and whose internal energy (U) and volume (V) are constant. In such systems only the work of expansion or no work at all is performed.

The greatest merits of Gibbs
• One of the greatest merits of J.W. Gibbs is that he used the works by L. Euler, J.L. Lagrange and other outstanding mathematicians (specifically, the variation principles developed by them) as a basis for the concepts on the functions of state of the system other than entropy (which, like entropy, have full differentials). The functions of state permit determining the directions of spontaneous processes and estimating the extent of their advancement in individual thermodynamic systems identified in the real world.

Papers of J. Willard Gibbs
"Anyone who hopes to make advances in the fundamental theory or interpretation of thermodynamics (assuming, contrary to current dogma, that such advances can be made) needs to read the majority of this book.“
D. J. Bottomley

Hierarchical Thermodynamics in Action
Recently, the law of temporal hierarchies was formulated. This law substantiates the
possibility of identifying (discerning) quasi-closed monohierarchical systems (subsystems) within open polyhierarchical biological systems. It was also established that, as a rule, the processes of evolution in living natural systems are quasiequilibrium processes. It was shown that

models of living systems are analogues of models of equilibrium (quasi-equilibrium) chromatographic columns.

“Deriving from the quasi-equilibrium point of view, or punctuated equilibrium thermodynamic perspective, between the years 1978 to the present, we find Gladyshev making great headway towards the unification of thermodynamic theory with that of the evolutionary process of life.”

Closed system
In thermodynamics, a closed system, as contrasted with an isolated system, can exchange heat and work, but not matter, with its surroundings

Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green)

A chemoluminescent reaction in

Closed system
A chemoluminescent reaction carried out in a flask producing a large amount of light

What is Life?

Erwin Schrodinger

Hierarchical structures


The law of temporal hierarchies
• The law of temporal hierarchies assumes the following form: • … << … Hear t (m)












is the mean lifetime of molecules (chemical substance) involved in metabolism in the body, t (im) is the mean lifetime of all intermolecular (supramolecular) structures of tissues renewed during individual growth and development, t (organism) is the mean lifetime of individual organisms in a population, and t (pop) is the mean population lifetime. This delineation facilitates the divide-up of the dynamic, energy-fluxing, biological world into quasi-closed, nearequilibrium subsystems, based on common half-life.

Supramolecular thermodynamics
• It was established that, in the process of ontogenesis, as well as phylogenesis and evolution generally, the specific value of the Gibbs function of formation of supramolecular structures of the tissues of an i-th organism tends toward a minimum:

~im 1 Gi = V



~ im ∂G (x, y, z)dxdydz min → ∂m

Supramolecular thermodynamics of quasiclosed biological systems

Chemical Composition of Embryo
Variation of the amount of water and fat in a developing human embryo
(Widdowson E.M. Body Composition in Animals and Man, 1967).

1 - water in tissue; 2 - fat in tissue. m (fat) and m (water) - the amount of fat and water (weight %); M - mass of embryo.

Schematic variation of the specific Gibbs function corresponding to the formation of the aggregated phase of supramolecular structures in organism

Organism is a complex chromatographic column (1959-1960) A chemist using column chromatograp hic apparatus in the mid1950s

(aging of a wick)

ch ch

P r o d u c ts o f t h e p h o t o s y n th e s is lig h t s ta g e a n d o th e r n o n -sp o n ta n e o u s p ro c e sse s
S p o n ta n e o u s “ d a r k r e a c tio n s ”


B io m o le c u le s

N o n -s p o n ta n e o u s p ro c e sse s

S u p r a m o le c u la r s t r u c t u r e s , c e lls

S e lf - a s s e m b ly o f c e lls

O r g a n is m s

Scheme of the change in the Gibbs function of formation of complex systems, ∆G *

S e lf - a s s e m b ly o f o r g a n is m s

P o p u la t io n s

S e lf -a s s e m b ly o f p o p u la tio n s , c o m m u n itie s , e tc .

E c o sy stem s

S e lf- a s s e m b ly o f s tr u c tu r e o f n o o s p h e r e

N oosp h ere
ch ch

S p o n ta n e o u s d e g r a d a tio n o f m o le c u le s



, H 2O , H 2 S , N 2 , . . .

- t h e r m o d y n a m ic a lly s t a b le p r o d u c t s

S p o n ta n e o u s p ro c e ss e s

The motive force of the non-spontaneous processes of the cycle of matter, first of all, is connected with the Sun.

S e lf -a s s e m b ly : th e r m o d y n a m ic s e lf- o r g a n iz in g

The anti-aging quality of foodstuff
• The GPGi index, connected with it can be easily assessed from the approximated Gibbs – Helmholtz – Gladyshev equation, which is an analogue of the classical Gibbs – Helmholtz approximated equation.

The anti-aging quality of foodstuff
• The GPGi index, connected with it can be easily assessed from the approximated Gibbs – Helmholtz – Gladyshev equation, which is an analogue of the classical Gibbs – Helmholtz approximated equation.

Gibbs-Helmholtz equation
In thermodynamic terms (and in the light of known facts), the proper diet rejuvenates the organism’s tissues. This is easy to see having analyzed the approximate equation — an analogue of Gibbs-Helmholtz equation:

~im ~im ~im ∆Gi = (∆H m / Tm )(Tm − T0 ) = ∆Sm ∆T i i
i i

~ where ∆G im is the specific Gibbs function (Gibbs specific free energy) of i
~im ~ the formation of the condensed phase of matter i, ∆H m and ∆ im Sm i i are the change of specific enthalpy and entropy during the solidification of natural fat, Tm is i the melting or freezing point, and T0 is the standard temperature (e.g., 37° ~ C) at which the comparison of values ∆G im is done. i

DSC method

~ ~im ~im ∆Giim = (∆H m / Tm )(Tm − T0 ) = ∆Sm ∆T i i
i i

The melting point of fats or oils and the anti-aging value
• It follows from the analogue of equation that a correlation between calculated for standard ~ ∆ iim and the pour or melting G temperature point of fats or oils, should often be observed, with acceptable approximation. Such a correlation should of course, be also observed between the indicator of the antiaging (gerontological) value of the food in question, GPGi and Tm. Indeed, such a correlation does exist.

Nutritive particle molecules


• I wish to model the human organism as complex chromatograph column, such that upon digestion of food-stuffs, in which some part of sustenance first reacts with hydrochloric acid and enzymes to break-down in the stomach, the nutritive particle molecules will then each migrate to different parts of the human molecular structure based on their relative thermodynamic stability and their relative chemical affinities for different intra-molecular attachment sites within the human molecule – the body.

Nutritive particle molecules


• Hence, by way of correlating this theory and subsequent data sets to longevity statistics I wish to assign gerontological values to food-stuffs based on enthalpy or heats (Gibbs function) of supramolecular interaction measurements. So, essentially, I patented the idea that all items of food intake can be assigned an anti-aging value based on thermodynamic parameters.

Accuracy of calculation
• Needless to say, the correlations presented in some figures can be specified by a strict evaluation of the GPGi indicator. The latter’s value, as well as a product’s congeal point Tcong , depend on the environment and the age of the plant or animal used as food.

Gerontological value of the foodstuffs
• Knowing the pour point of vegetable oils and fats, we can build the series: • Hempseed oil, linseed oil, sea buckthorn oil, cedar oil, sunflower oil, mustard oil, olive oil, cottonseed oil, seal oil, bottle-nose oil, butter oil, lard, horse fat, beef fat, mutton fat. • This series, from the highest to the lowest gerontological value of the foodstuffs, can be substantially expanded.

Dependence of “anti-aging (gerontological) value” of edible oils and fats, GPGi, on their congeal point, Tcong

The thermodynamic theory makes it possible to define the principles upon which proper diets and medications can be devised to slow down aging.

Practical advice
• The arguments presented in this paper (in my view, well-substantiated) indicate that practically all concrete (detailed) recommendations relating to nutrition are individual. They should be formulated on the basis of general and anti-aging medicine (gerontology) and should factor in the findings of physicochemical dietetics.

Practical advice
Nevertheless, the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms (built on the foundation of classical science) provides an opportunity to formulate general concepts pertaining to nutrition and helping prolong healthy human life.


(Sergei V. Voronov)

The hierarchy of cells
• There are some facts that call for application of the principle of substance stability to the hierarchy of cells. Thus, tumor cells have a lower ability for aggregation. As a result, they easily move in the body, which leads to the appearance of metastases. The cell membranes of tumor cells are, apparently, formed from supramolecular structures of increased stability. Hence, the supramolecular stability of cell aggregates formed with the participation of tumor cells should be lowered according to the principle in question.

Stability of cell aggregates
• In order to increase the adhesive ability of the cells, the structure of membranes should be “diluted” and made less thermodynamically stable.

Hence, it is clear why experimental anticancer diets propose the use of plant oils, fats of animals from cold seas, and other products containing residues of unsaturated low-melting-point fatty acids.

The anti-tumor effect of aspirin can also be explained on the basis of such statements. These ideas agree with the recommendations made using the thermodynamic 2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid theory of aging.


Dormant ancient genes

• The principle of substance stability facilitates our understanding of the effect of the influence of some chemical substances on the supramolecular structures of nucleic acids. As a result of the action of such substances, dormant ancient genes, accumulated during the evolution of living beings, may be activated. These genes can stimulate some types of cancer.
• 1. The sun as it appears through a camera lens from the surface of Earth

• A well-known fact in the sphere of sociology concerning family ties illustrates the relationship between the principle of substance stability and a social hierarchy. Here, we have in mind the substance (elemental structures) of any inside social hierarchy (“understructure hierarchy”), such as a hierarchy of organisms, groups of organisms, etc.

• The stronger the love, mutual understanding, and affinity between a couple, i.e. level (j-1), the less time he or she has to spend “outside the family”, i.e. level (j). Conversely, weaker adhesions of love, between couples, results to force the least thermodynamically stable structure, i.e. the least stable partner, into a transition to a new hierarchy. Such spouses do not have the desire, power, or time for this. In human social life, as we see, hierarchical thermodynamics applies equally as well.

Stability of parties, unions, states
The principle of substance stability corresponds with the well-known rules of maintenance of stability of parties, unions, states, and nations. One can comprehend this principle in many age-old social management methods, such as “divide and rule.”

Divide and Rule
In politics and sociology, divide and rule (also known as divide and conquer) is a combination political, military and economic strategy of gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into chunks that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.

The domino effect

refers to a small change which will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end. The domino effect also relates to chain of events. It can also refer to the secret war as the U.S trying to stop the Hmong from falling into communism and then eventually the whole world.

This report is a short review of last author's works in the field of hierarchical thermodynamics theory, which is the classical thermodynamic study of hierarchy dynamics in evolutionary timescales. With this theory, we are able to develop dynamical models of equilibrium analysis of hierarchical structures such as atomic hierarchies, molecular hierarchies, nutritional hierarchies, and social hierarchies. Thermodynamically, we are able to predict and study their course of evolution as they approach equilibrium points of stability and to study energetic transitions that occur between adjoined hierarchies

An idea whose time has come
• “There is one thing stronger than all the armies in the world, and that is an idea whose time has come.” Victor Hugo • The time of thermodynamic theory of biological evolution, aging and origin of life has come now.
• All conclusions of the hierarchical thermodynamic theory of aging are in good agreement with centuries-old experience of mankind and with other reliable facts. It can be hoped that, the onset the 21st century, a thermodynamic theory should soon allow us, I believe, to “postpone” aging by 15-20 years on average, and benefit the preservation of youthfulness and health in people of any age.

Mountains – Youth, Health

Human Chemistry
Libb Thims

PUBLISHER: Lulu, Chicago, Institute of Human Thermodynamics 2007

Institute of Human Thermodynamics
• • FOUNDER / ORGANIZER: Libb Thims - HT-Researcher Location: Chicago, Illinois, US Central Office: Chicago, USA • 4860 N. Rockwell Chicago, IL 60625-2890
• • • •
• •

Georgi P. Gladyshev, HT-Researcher, Physical Chemistry Professor, Professor of Biomedical Systems, BS Chemistry, PhD (Dr. Science) Polymer Chemistry
President: International Academy of Creative Endeavors Principal Researcher: Institute of Chemical Physics (RAS) Head: Institute of Physico-Chemical Problems of Evolution

Hierarchical Thermodynamics' Foundation

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Gerontology is the study of aging. It is to be distinguished from Geriatrics, which is the study of the diseases of the aging (medical studies).


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