Welcome to ZTE Technical Training Center

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Class Rules
Class Hours: 8:40 AM - 11:50 AM 14:10-17:20 PM Little Breaks: Several short breaks throughout class Set mobile on silence or vibrator mode No smoking in classroom

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

BSS Course Agenda
Course A: CDMA Basic Theory
Course B: ZXC10-BSS Hardware Introduction and Operation Course C:1x Packet Data Service Course D: Network design and optimization

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

IV. II. ZTE CORPORATION .Course A:CDMA Basic Theory I. III. CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA Overview Basic Principle Channel Structure and Modulation Key Technology Copyright 2003.

I. CDMA Overview Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

the role of ZTE in CDMA Copyright 2003.CDMA spectrum usage -.the history of mobile communication -.the advantage of CDMA -. the student will be able to master: -.CDMA migration from 2G to 3G -.Objectives Upon completion of this lesson. ZTE CORPORATION .

handoff. ZTE CORPORATION . power change and other noise Multiple MS and channels: – Interference 、near and far effect Limit of frequency resources Reliability is important – registration. switching • • • • Copyright 2003. multi-path(space and time)shadow effect and delay.• Characteristics of Mobile Communication Mobility: – flexible and convenient,global personal communication Poor environment and conditions : – Co-channel interference.

Evolution of Mobile Communications System 1G Analog cellular Voice AMPS TACS 80’ 2G Digital cellular Voice /data CDMA GSM 1992 1XRtt GPRS 1999 3G Digital cellular Vioce / high speed data CDMA2000 W_CDMA 20 01 2003 AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System TACS: Total Access Communication System GPRS: General Packet Radio Services Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

almost 20% of all users in the world. Copyright 2003.CDMA-Its History & Status • 1993. Xi‘an. • At present. China Unicom began to construct CDMA networks—the largest in the world. 2001. • In April. CDMA commercial networks are established in about 40 countries or area. • In 1997. CDMA trial networks were constructed in Beijing. the first CDMA standard IS-95 was issued. • In 1995. CDMA technology was put into commercialization in Hongkong and America on large scale. ZTE CORPORATION . Shanghai and Guangzhou in China.

N-AMPS 1 3 1 Users 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 30 30 Vulnerability: C/I @ 17 dB 10 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=7 GSM 8 Users Vulnerability: C/I @ 12-14 dB 1 4 200 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 2 3 CDMA 20 Users 1250 kHz Vulnerability: Eb/No @ 6--7 dB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 Copyright 2003. network design and expanding become much easier AMPS. D-AMPS. ZTE CORPORATION .Advantages of CDMA(1) Frequency reuse factor is 1.

ZTE CORPORATION TDMA Power CDMA Power .Advantages of CDMA(2) Large capacity: 8--10 times than AMPS 4—6 times than GSM FDMA---Different user use different frequency FDMA Power TACS、AMPS TDMA---Different user use different time slot of one frequency GSM、DAMPS CDMA---Different user use same frequency at the same time.but with different spreading code Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Advantages of CDMA(3) large coverage almost 2 times than GSM. save money for operator Example:cover 1000 km2: GSM need 200 BTS CDMA only need 50 BTS Attention: exact result need “Link Budget ” Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION Spread code .hard to wiretapping Spread signal Information signal TX RX Each user is below the noise deeply Demodulated signal Spread code Copyright 2003.Advantages of CDMA(4) High privacy.

ZTE CORPORATION . decrease drop-call rate CDMA:”make before break”---soft handoff Other systems: “make after break”---hard handoff Copyright 2003.Advantages of CDMA(5) Use soft handoff.

13K(QCELP. ZTE CORPORATION .EVRC)voice coding—the best coding method in the world.Advantages of CDMA(6) Good voice quality. Voice quality (MOS) 64k PCM 13k GSM 8k 13k CDMA CDMA 8kEVRC CDMA Copyright 2003. use 8k.

Advantages of CDMA(7) Perfect Power Control and voice activation make the MS Power low. Mean Power GSM: CDMA: Copyright 2003. healthy for human body—green mobile phone. ZTE CORPORATION Max Power 2W 200mW 125mW 2mW .

ZTE CORPORATION .Advantages of CDMA(8) Smooth migration to 3G and the operator’s benefit is protected at the most 95A  95B 95B  1X 1X  1XEV  Software update  Add 1X channel  Add 1XEV Technical channel board  Replace MS to board Scheme: get new service  Software update  Software update  Replace MS to ge  Replace MS to get new service new service Economic Scheme:  Almost free  inexpensive  inexpesive Copyright 2003.

Definition of Some Terms(1) • Channel – Duplex channel made of two 1.25 MHz bands are 45 MHz apart – In 1900 MHz PCS they are 80 MHz apart – In 450MHz.they are 10MHz apart CDMA CHANNEL CDMA Reverse Channel 1.25 MHz 45 or 80 or 10 MHz Copyright 2003.25 MHz CDMA Forward Channel 1.2288MHz-wide bands of electromagnetic spectrum: one for Base Station to Mobile Station communication (called the FORWARD LINK or the DOWNLINK) and another for Mobile Station to Base Station communication (called the REVERSE LINK or the UPLINK) • Carrier or Frequency – In 800 MHz Cellular these two duplex 1. ZTE CORPORATION .

025(N-1) BS sender(downlink): 460.00+0.00+0.03N 1900MHz BS receiver(Uplink): 1850.00+0.025(N-1) 800MHz BS receiver(Uplink): 825.05N BS sender(downlink):1930.Definition of Some Terms(2) CDMA Frequency Calculation: 450MHz BS receiver(Uplink): 450. ZTE CORPORATION .00+0.00+0.05N Copyright 2003.00+0.03N BS sender(downlink):870.

5 894 MHz Reverse link (i.5 B’ 2. “guard bands” possibly required if adjacentfrequency signals are non-CDMA (AMPS.CDMA 800 MHz Cellular Spectrum Usage Channel Numbers 1 1023 1 1023 991 824 MHz 334 333 667 666 717 716 799 991 other uses 334 333 667 666 717 716 799 A” 1 A 10 B 10 A’ 1. ESMR.5 A” 1 A 10 B 10 A’ 1.25 MHz.. mobile transmits) Possible CDMA Center Freq.5 B’ 2. wide – Can serve ~20 users /8 kb vocoder Copyright 2003. Assignments 849 MHz 869 MHz Forward link (i. ZTE CORPORATION .e.e. TDMA.. etc.) • All CDMA RF carriers are 1. cell site transmits) ~300 kHz.

CDMA Frequency Channel Assignment at 800 MHz Cellular 1 1023 991 334 333 667 666 716 715 799 A” Channel Numbers A Band B Band A’ B’ 1019 37 78 119 160 201 242 283 384 425 466 507 548 589 630 691 736 777 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 9 8 * CDMA A-Band Carriers CDMA B-Band Carriers * ** * Requires frequency coordination with non-cellular interferers band carrier ** Requires frequency coordination with AA Band Primary Channel A Band Secondary Channel 283 691 B Band Primary Channel B Band Secondary Channel 384 777 IS-95 Recommends to Start CDMA deployment with Either the Primary or the Secondary Channel Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

mobile transmits) Forward link (i.e. ZTE CORPORATION ..CDMA PCS 1900 MHz Spectrum Usage Guard Bands Channel Numbers 300 299 400 0 MTA B T A Licensed Unlicensed 0 1199 700 699 MTA B T A 800 B T A 900 BTA 300 299 400 Paired Bands Licensed 1199 700 699 800 900 Data Voice MTA B T A MTA B T A B T A BTA A 15 1850 MHz D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 1910 MHz 10 10 1930 MHz A 15 D 5 B 15 E F 5 5 C 15 1990 MHz Reverse link (i.. cell site transmits) Copyright 2003.e.

CDMA 1900 MHz Cellular Spectrum Assignment N= 925 950 975 925 950 975 1895M (Uplink:1895-1900) 1900M 1975M (Downlink:1975-1980) 1980M Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

Definition of some Terms(3) • CDMA Code Channel – All CDMA users transmit and receive on the same channel. Sync.but they are separated based on their digital code. Paging and Forward Traffic channels – Code channels in the reverse link: Access and Reverse Traffic channels Copyright 2003. – Code channels in the forward link: Pilot. ZTE CORPORATION .Because CDMA allocates individual users different digital codes rather than divide the spectrum based on frequency or time.

2000. 1999.The data rate reach up to 153. 2000, ZTE presented the first CDMA handset with UIM in the world.9G ZXC10-BTS type approval certificates Copyright 2003. In September. HLR/AUC. ZTE CORPORATION . ZTE signed the “Agreement on CDMA R&D” with Qualcomm In August.6Kbps. ZTE cdma2000-1x realized the integrated transmission of voice. In January. CDMA mobile telecommunication project was started In November.BSC.  The certificates acquired: –CDMA 800M ZXC10-MSC/VLR. BTS network access licenses –CDMA 800M/1. the first field trial was set up. 2001. the first cdma2000-1x call was passed through in lab In March. 2001. data & image.ZTE’s Activities in CDMA       In 1995.

ZTE A Famous Brand in CDMA PSTN/PLMN MSC/VLR HLR/AUC Um IS95 Abis E1 BTS(IS-95) BSC(IS-95) SC Abis BTS(IS-95) WIN Um IS2000 2G/3G 终端 IP Abis BSC/ PCF (1X) E1 STM-1 HA OMC E1 Ethernet Internet 路由器 BTS(1X) 路由器 Abis E1 STM-1 BSC/ PCF (1X) Ethernet PDSN/FA IP BTS(1X) Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION AAA 业务服务器 .

ZTE CORPORATION . CDMA BASIC PRINCIPLE Copyright 2003.II.

ZTE CORPORATION . the student will be able to: • Describe the differences between CDMA. TDMA.Objectives Upon completion of this lesson. FDMA • What is spread spectrum modulation • Identify we use DSSS in CDMA • Know Walsh codes • Know short PN and long PN • Know the purpose of Vo-coding Copyright 2003.

3 2.4 The principle of Spread spectrum Walsh Code and its application PN Code and its application The Communication Model of CDMA Copyright 2003.2 2. ZTE CORPORATION .Contents 2.1 2.

Examples: – Twisted pair . private circuit through the transmission medium. Transmission • • Types of Media -. system operators have tried to squeeze the maximum amount of traffic over each circuit.copper – Coaxial cable – Fiber optic cable – Air interface (radio signals) Advantages of Multiple Access – Increased capacity: serve more users – Reduced capital requirements since fewer media can carry the traffic – Decreased per-user expense – Easier to manage and administer Medium Each pair of users enjoys a dedicated. Since the beginning of telephony and radio.Multiple Access Multiple Access: Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple. Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION . unaware that the other users exist. independent users.

Channels Channel: An individually-assigned. dedicated pathway through a transmission medium for one user’s information. The transmission medium is a resource that can be subdivided into individual channels according to the technology used. ZTE CORPORATION TDMA Power CDMA Power . but mixed with different distinguishing code patterns Copyright 2003. FDMA Power • FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access – Each user on a different frequency – A channel is a frequency • TDMA Time Division Multiple Access – Each user on a different window period in time (―time slot‖) – A channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency • CDMA Code Division Multiple Access – A channel is a unique code pattern – Each user uses the same frequency all the time.

one for Base Station to Mobile Station communication (called the FORWARD LINK or the DOWNLINK) and another for Mobile Station to Base Station communication (called the REVERSE LINK or the UPLINK) – In 800 Cellular these two simplex 1.25 MHz Forward Link • • CDMA Reverse Channel – 1. ZTE CORPORATION . Sync. Paging and Forward Traffic channels – Code channels in the reverse link: Access and Reverse Traffic channels Copyright 2003.25 MHz 45 or 80 MHz CDMA Code Channel – Each individual stream of 0’s and 1’s contained in either the CDMA Forward Channel or in the CDMA Reverse Channel – Code Channels are characterized (made unique) by mathematical codes – Code channels in the forward link: Pilot.25 MHz-wide bands of electromagnetic spectrum.25 MHz bands are 45 MHz apart – In 1900 MHz PCS they are 80 MHz apart CDMA CHANNEL CDMA Forward Channel CDMA CDMA – 1.25 MHz Reverse Link Reverse Channel 1.25 MHz • Forward Channel 1.Defining Our Terms • CDMA Channel or CDMA Carrier or CDMA Frequency – Duplex channel made of two 1.

ZTE CORPORATION .CDMA Is a Spread-Spectrum System TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Slow Information Sent Narrowband Signal Slow Information Recovered  Traditional technologies try to squeeze the signal into the minimum required bandwidth  Direct-Sequence Spread spectrum systems mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal  The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming wideband signal to recover the original data TX RX SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered Fast Spreading Sequence Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain Copyright 2003.

employ a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal bandwidth. ZTE CORPORATION .transmits spread data stream Receiver intercepts the stream. Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence.uses same spreading sequence to extract original data Copyright 2003.What is Spread Spectrum ORIGINATING SITE Spread Data Stream Input Data Recovered Data DESTINATION Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence Definition:Spread spectrum technique .

Spread Process Digital Signal -1 1 Spreading Spreading Signal -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 Spreading Code Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

De-spread Process -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 Despreading -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 Integra tor -4 4 Adjudge -1 1 0 0 Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

b/s B is signal bandwidth. Copyright 2003. C is capacity of channel. Hz S is average power for signal N is average power for noise It is the landmark paper of information theory.Spread Spectrum Principles SHANON Formula C=B*log2(1+S/N) Where. ZTE CORPORATION . a mathematical theory of spectrum communication.

ZTE CORPORATION . A(f) Bf0 0 τ0/2 2T0 1/τ0 f t 0 f0/2  The pulse spectrum lines density depends on the pulse sequence period. the amplitude of the spectrum will decrease.Spread Spectrum Digital Waveform and Spectrum g(t) E T0=5τ0 2E/5 Bf0 0 τ0/2 A(f) f T0 t 0 f0 Pulse width is τ0. Pulse width is τ0. pulse period is T0 Copyright 2003. So we use the narrower pulse sequence for modulating the carrier to achieve wider bandwidth . pulse period is 2T0 g(t) E A(f) T0=10τ0 τ1=τ0/2 E/5 Bf1 1/τ1 f 0 τ1/2 T0  If the pulse period increase or the pulse width decrease. t 0 f1 Pulse width is τ0/2. pulse period is T0 =5τ0 g(t) E 2T0=10τ0 E/5  The bandwidth depends on the pulse width.

How DSSS Spectrum Change Direct Sequence CDMA Time User 1 Frequency + = Code 1 Composite Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION Pulse Noise Other Noise .Spectrum Variation of Spread & De-spread S(f) Signal Signal f0 S(f) f f0 f Signal Spectrum Before SS S(f) S(f) Signal Spectrum after SS Noise Signal f0 Signal Noise f f0 Signal Spectrum Before Decoding f Signal Spectrum After Decoding Signal Copyright 2003.

Illustration to SS Principle(1) Power is ―Spread‖ Over a Larger Bandwidth 9. ZTE CORPORATION .25 MHz Copyright 2003.6 KHz 1.

ZTE CORPORATION .Illustration to SS Principle(2) Many code channels are individually “spread” and then added together to create a ―composite signal‖ Copyright 2003.

any Code Channel can be extracted from the received composite signal Eb/No PG UNWANTED POWER FROM OTHER SOURCES Copyright 2003.Illustration to SS Principle(3) Using the ―right‖ mathematical Sequences. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION AMPS. GSM.4 @ 25 12 dB = 101.Spectrum Usage and Capacity: • Each wireless technology (AMPS. the Signal Bandwidth determines how many RF signals will “fit” in the operator’s licensed spectrum 17 dB = @ 50 14 dB = 101.2 @ 16 101. CDMA) uses a specific modulation type with its own unique signal characteristics • The total traffic capacity of a wireless system is determined largely by radio signal characteristics and RF design • RF signal vulnerability to Interference dictates how much interference can be tolerated.7 Copyright 2003. NAMPS. D-AMPS. D-AMPS. N-AMPS 1 3 1 Users 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 30 30 Vulnerability: C/I @ 17 dB 10 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=7 GSM 8 Users Vulnerability: C/I @ 12-14 dB 1 4 200 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 2 3 CDMA 20 Users 1250 kHz Vulnerability: Eb/No @ 6--7 dB 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 . and therefore how far apart same-frequency cells must be spaced • For a specific S/N level.

250.11 = = 130 = 10 = 21.000 1.4 dB R 14. ZTE CORPORATION W 1.600 W 1.250.1 dB R 9.400 .Relationship Between Eb/N0 and S/N Eb = Signal Power Bit Rate = S R = E/t B/t N0 = Noise Power Bandwidth = N W Signal to Noise S Eb N0 R = N W = S R X W N = S N X W R Processing Gain 8 Kb vocoder (Full Rate) 13 Kb vocoder (Full Rate) Copyright 2003.94 = = 87 = 10 = 19.000 2.

ZTE CORPORATION . the original data stream is recovered intact Copyright 2003.Anything We Can Do. We Can Undo ORIGINATING SITE Spread Data Stream (Base Band + Spreading Sequence) Input Data (Base Band) Recovered Data (Base Band) DESTINATION Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence • Any data bit stream can be combined with a spreading sequence • The resulting signal can be de-spread and the data stream recovered if the original spreading sequence is available and properly synchronized • After de-spreading.

ZTE CORPORATION . • The spreading sequences can have different desired properties. Copyright 2003.CDMA Spreading Principle Using Multiple Codes ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence X A B C C B A • Multiple spreading sequences can be applied in succession and then reapplied in opposite order to recover the original data stream. • All spreading sequences originally used must be available in proper synchronization at the recovering destination.

• CDMA ―containers‖ are spreading codes. • The shipper packs in a certain order. packaging is extremely important! • Cargo is placed inside ―nested‖ containers for protection and to allow addressing. Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION . and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order.“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA Shipping Receiving FedEx Data FedEx Mailer Mailer Data • Whether in shipping and receiving or in CDMA.

Advantages of Spread Spectrum  Avoid interference arising from jamming signal or multipath effects  SS and demodulation. ZTE CORPORATION . noise is suppressed and filtered  resist intercept and capture: difficult to detect  Achieve Privacy: Difficult to demodulate  Implement Multiple Access  Improve Frequency Reuse  Enlarge Capacity Copyright 2003.

• The Forward Channel carries a composite signal of up to 64 forward code channels. – The codes in this set are called ―Walsh Codes‖ Copyright 2003. • Some code channels are traffic channels and others are overhead channels.Discriminating Among Forward Code Channels Pilot Sync FW Traffic (for user #1) Paging FW Traffic (for user #3) FW Traffic (for user #2) • A Mobile Station receives a Forward Channel from a sector in a Base Station. • A set of 64 mathematical codes is needed to differentiate the 64 possible forward code channels. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION A B . • These Short PN Sequences can be used in 512 different ways in a CDMA system. • A Mobile Station must be able to discriminate between different Sectors of different Base Stations. all of them transmitting on the same CDMA Frequency.Discriminating Among Base Station Up to 64 Code Channels Up to 64 Code Channels • A mobile Station is surrounded by Base Stations. Each one of them constitutes a mathematical code which can be used to identify a particular sector. • Two binary digit sequences called the I and Q Short PN Sequences (or Short PN Codes) are defined for the purpose of identifying sectors of different base stations. Copyright 2003. • Each Sector in each Base Station is transmitting a Forward Traffic Channel containing up to 64 forward code channels.

#2000071301 (on access channel #1) RV Traffic from M. Each one of them constitutes a mathematical code which can be used to identify a particular user (and is then called a User Long Code) or a particular ―user Reverse Traffic channel‖. #1837732008 RV Traffic from M. • One binary digit sequence called the Long PN Sequence (or Long PN Code) is defined for the purpose of uniquely identifying each possible reverse code channel. • This sequence is extremely long and can be used in trillions of different ways. • A very large number of Mobile Stations will be in the market.Discriminating Among Reverse Code Channels RV Traffic from M.S.S.S. #1994011508 • The CDMA system must be able to identify each Mobile Station that may attempt to communicate with a Base Station. ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003. #1997061104 System Access Attempt by M.S.

ZTE CORPORATION .768 chips 26-2/3 ms 75x in 2 sec. Mutually Orthogonal User identity within cell‘s signal Orthogonal Modulation (information carrier) Short PN Sequences 2 32.200 sec. Orthogonal with itself at any time shift value except 0 Distinguish Cells & Sectors Quadrature Spreading (Zero offset) Long PN Sequences 1 242 chips ~41 days nearorthogonal if shifted Data Scrambling to avoid strings of 1‘s or 0‘s Distinguish users Copyright 2003.CDMA Spread Code Selection Type of Sequence How Many Length Special Properties Forward Link Function Reverse Link Function Walsh Codes 64 64 chips 1/19.

1 The principle of Spread spectrum 2.2 Walsh Code and its application 2.4 The Communication Model of CDMA Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Contents 2.3 PN Code and its application 2.

 Definition of Walsh Function  The application of Walsh Function Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Hn Hn H 2n = ___ Hn Hn Copyright 2003.It is just composed of +1(0) and –1(1). ZTE CORPORATION .  Hadamard matrix is an orthogonal square matrix.Definition of Walsh code  Walsh function is formed by recursion relationship of Hadamard matrix.

64-Chip Sequence -----------------------------------------0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 0011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011 0110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110011001100110 0000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111 0101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010 0011110000111100001111000011110000111100001111000011110000111100 0110100101101001011010010110100101101001011010010110100101101001 0000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000000011111111 0101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101010110101010 0011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011001111001100 0110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000000001111111100000000111111110000 0101101010100101010110101010010101011010101001010101101010100101 0011110011000011001111001100001100111100110000110011110011000011 0110100110010110011010011001011001101001100101100110100110010110 0000000000000000111111111111111100000000000000001111111111111111 0101010101010101101010101010101001010101010101011010101010101010 0011001100110011110011001100110000110011001100111100110011001100 0110011001100110100110011001100101100110011001101001100110011001 0000111100001111111100001111000000001111000011111111000011110000 0101101001011010101001011010010101011010010110101010010110100101 0011110000111100110000111100001100111100001111001100001111000011 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0000000011111111111111110000000000000000111111111111111100000000 0101010110101010101010100101010101010101101010101010101001010101 0011001111001100110011000011001100110011110011001100110000110011 0110011010011001100110010110011001100110100110011001100101100110 0000111111110000111100000000111100001111111100001111000000001111 0101101010100101101001010101101001011010101001011010010101011010 0011110011000011110000110011110000111100110000111100001100111100 0110100110010110100101100110100101101001100101101001011001101001 0000000000000000000000000000000011111111111111111111111111111111 0101010101010101010101010101010110101010101010101010101010101010 0011001100110011001100110011001111001100110011001100110011001100 0110011001100110011001100110011010011001100110011001100110011001 0000111100001111000011110000111111110000111100001111000011110000 0101101001011010010110100101101010100101101001011010010110100101 0011110000111100001111000011110011000011110000111100001111000011 0110100101101001011010010110100110010110100101101001011010010110 0000000011111111000000001111111111111111000000001111111100000000 0101010110101010010101011010101010101010010101011010101001010101 0011001111001100001100111100110011001100001100111100110000110011 0110011010011001011001101001100110011001011001101001100101100110 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 0101101010100101010110101010010110100101010110101010010101011010 0011110011000011001111001100001111000011001111001100001100111100 0110100110010110011010011001011010010110011010011001011001101001 0000000000000000111111111111111111111111111111110000000000000000 0101010101010101101010101010101010101010101010100101010101010101 0011001100110011110011001100110011001100110011000011001100110011 0110011001100110100110011001100110011001100110010110011001100110 0000111100001111111100001111000011110000111100000000111100001111 0101101001011010101001011010010110100101101001010101101001011010 0011110000111100110000111100001111000011110000110011110000111100 0110100101101001100101101001011010010110100101100110100101101001 0000000011111111111111110000000011111111000000000000000011111111 0101010110101010101010100101010110101010010101010101010110101010 0011001111001100110011000011001111001100001100110011001111001100 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000111100000000111111110000000011110000111111110000 0101101010100101101001010101101010100101010110100101101010100101 0011110011000011110000110011110011000011001111000011110011000011 0110100110010110100101100110100110010110011010010110100110010110 Correlation Results: 32 1’s. 32 0’s: Orthogonal!! Copyright 2003.Walsh Codes • 64 Sequences. each 64 chips long – A chip is a binary digit (0 or 1) • Each Walsh Code is Orthogonal to all other Walsh Codes – This means that it is possible to recognize and therefore extract a particular Walsh code from a mixture of other Walsh codes which are ―filtered out‖ in the process – Two same-length binary strings are orthogonal if the result of XORing them has the same number of 0s as 1s EXAMPLE: Correlation of Walsh Code #23 with Walsh Code #59 #23 #59 XOR 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 0000111111110000000011111111000011110000000011111111000000001111 WALSH CODES # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ---------------------------------. ZTE CORPORATION .

Correlation and Orthogonality
Correlation is a measure of the similarity between two binary strings
Code #23 Code #59 0110100101101001100101101001011001101001011010011001011010010110 0110011010011001100110010110011010011001011001100110011010011001 –(Code #23) 1001011010010110011010010110100110010110100101100110100101101001

#23 #23

#59

#23

#23

–(#23)

PARALLEL
XOR: all 0s Correlation: 100%
(100% match)

ORTHOGONAL
XOR: half 0s, half 1s Correlation: 0%
(50% match, 50% no-match)

ANTI-PARALLEL
XOR: all 1s Correlation: –100%
(100% no-match)

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Properties of the Walsh Codes
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

° When a Walsh code is XORed chip by chip with itself, the result is all 0‘s (100% correlation) ° When a Walsh code is XORed chip by chip with its logical negation, the result is all 1‘s (–100% correlation) ° When a Walsh code is XORed chip by chip with any other code or its logical negation, the result is half 0‘s and half 1‘s (0% correlation)

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

Walsh Code Table
0123 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 4567 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 11 8901 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 2345 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 6789 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 2222 0123 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 2222 4567 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 2233 8901 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 3333 2345 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 3333 6789 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 4444 0123 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 4444 4567 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 4455 8901 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 5555 2345 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 5555 6789 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 6666 0123 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110 1111 1010 1100 1001 1111 1010 1100 1001 0000 0101 0011 0110

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

ZTE CORPORATION .the Application of Walsh code 64-rank Walsh code • Forward Link: spread spectrum and indicate forward channel • Backward Link: Orthogonal modulation Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .1 The principle of Spread spectrum 2.2 Walsh Code and its application 2.3 PN Code and its application 2.Contents 2.4 The Communication Model of CDMA Copyright 2003.

PN (pseudo noise )sequence m sequence phase mask orthogonal、self-correlation、cross-correlation Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

PN Sequence  Similar with noise sequence property  Seemingly like random sequence.but it is regular and periodic binary code sequence Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

modulo-2 Adder.m Sequence Definition • m sequence is an important binary pseudo noise sequence • m sequence is the short term of ―Maximal-Length linear feedback shift register sequence‖ • Definition:If the output sequence period of r-stage linear feedback shift register is P=2r – 1,Then this sequence is m sequence • m sequence generator consists of three parts:shift register. feedback path Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .Four-Stage Linear Feedback Shift Register Modulo-2 Adder + X1 X2 X3 Clock Pulse X4 Output Output X=X1 + X2 + X3 + X4=10001001101011110 We suppose the initial state of the register X1X2X3X4=0001 Copyright 2003.

compare with two random line or row. ZTE CORPORATION .if the number of the same digits and different digits are equal.Orthogonal Orthogonal Definition From the standpoint of mathematics.two lines plumb each other From the standpoint of analogical. In CDMA system.signals between each other should be orthogonal Sequence 1: 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Orthogonal Sequence 2: 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Copyright 2003.we call it orthogonal.in order to protect less interference between signals.

ZTE CORPORATION .should select the good Autocorrelation code to insure demodulation and distinguish at the receiver side Cross-Correlation refers to the correlation or comparability between two different signals In CDMA system.different user should select less Cross-correlation signal as a code Copyright 2003.Self-correlation & Cross-correlation Self-correlation refers to the degree of correspondence or comparability between a sequence and a phase-shifted replica of itself In CDMA system.

Two conceptions Mask: • Different mask can make the different phase for m sequence. ZTE CORPORATION .the mask of different user is calculated by the ESN in the mobile phone Phase: • Different phase of difference sequence identify different base station and user Copyright 2003. • In CDMA system.

That means if two m sequence with different phase.The basic property of m sequence  Pseudo noise sequence  Period :P=2r-1,r is the stage of shift register  When the period is very long.it is almost orthogonal Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION . m sequence is almost orthogonal  The self correlation of m sequence is very well but the cross correlation is weak.

Short PN Sequences The two Short PN Sequences.) I Q Unique Properties: Short PN Sequence vs. they can be considered a two-dimensional binary ―vector‖ with distinct I and Q component sequences.384 0’s Copyright 2003. each 32.768 chips long 26 2/3 ms. Itself @ 0 Offset I Q I Q 100% Correlation: All bits = 0 Short PN Sequence vs.768 chips long • Together. are 32.768 chips long • Each Short PN Sequence (and. ZTE CORPORATION . (75 repetitions in 2 sec. Itself @ Any Offset I Q I Q Orthogonal: 16. any sequence) correlates with itself perfectly if compared at a timing offset of 0 chips • Each Short PN Sequence is special: Orthogonal to a copy of itself that has been offset by any number of chips (other than 0) 32.384 1’s + 16. as a matter of fact. I and Q.

where ―n‖ is the number of elements in the register – The number of zeroes in the sequence is equal to the number of ones minus 1 Copyright 2003.Short PN: 4-bits register example p1 p2 p3 p4 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 p4 p4 p5 = p1 + p4 p2 p3 The PN sequences are deterministic and periodic. ZTE CORPORATION p4 p5 p2 p3 . – The length of the generated string is 2n-1.

2288 Mcps.2288 MCPS) AND 1100011000 P E RMU T E D ESN Public Long Code Mask (STATIC) S UM = User Long Code Sequence (@1. • Generated at 1.2288 MCPS) Modulo-2 Addition • Each mobile station uses a unique User Long Code Sequence generated by applying a mask. ZTE CORPORATION . • Portions of the User Long Codes generated by different mobile stations for the duration of a call are not exactly orthogonal but are sufficiently different to permit reliable decoding on the reverse link.4 seconds to complete. to the 42-bit Long Code Generator which was synchronized with the CDMA system during the mobile station initialization. this sequence requires 41 days. based on its 32-bit ESN. 10 hours.The Long PN Sequence Long Code Register (@ 1. 12 minutes and 19. Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Long PN:4-bits shift register example Original PN sequence XOR mask AND AND AND AND XOR) New PN sequence 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 Attention:different mask lead to different offset! Copyright 2003.

PN code application in CDMA  PN code used in CDMA system Long code:242 – 1 (r = 42) Short code:215 (r = 15)  Different purpose ---Forward channel long code : scramble short code :orthogonal modulation and identify base station ---Reverse channel long code :spread spectrum and identify user short code :orthogonal modulation Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

2 Walsh Code and its application 2.4 The Communication Model of CDMA Copyright 2003.Contents 2. ZTE CORPORATION .3 PN Code and its application 2.1 The principle of Spread spectrum 2.

CDMA Communication Model Information Stream Speech Coding Channel Coding Scramble Spread Modulation Spectrum RF transmit Speech Channel decoding decoding DeDe-spread Descramble Spectrum Modulation RF receive Information Stream Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

The objective of speech coding is not only to maintain speech quality but also to reduce the quantity of transmitting data.include two types:  Speech coding is critical to digital transmission.CDMA system use an efficient method of speech coding and extensive error recovery techniques to overcome the harsh nature of the radio channel.Coding Technology In Digital communication coding technology. ZTE CORPORATION . The objective of channel coding is adding additional supervising bits in the information stream to ensure get correct signal at receive side. Copyright 2003. Channel coding usually falls into two classes:Block interleaver codes and Convolutional codes.

a maximum level of quality as perceived by the user. time or frequency domain). Copyright 2003. • Vocoders transmit parameters which control reproduction of voice instead of the explicit. waveform.Speech Coding A-to-D C O N V E R T E R 64 Kbps MTX 64 Kbps V O C O D E R “Codebook” Instruction 8Kbps • Speech coding algorithms (digital compression) are necessary to increase cellular system capacity. ZTE CORPORATION . • Coding can be performed in a variety of ways (for example. point-by-point waveform description. • Coding must also ensure reasonable fidelity. that is.

and user secondary data may be mixed in CDMA frames DSP QCELP VOCODER 20ms Sample Pitch Filter Codebook Coded Result Feedback Formant Filter Copyright 2003. signaling.Variable Rate Vocoding • CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Vocoder – Full rate during speech – Low rates in speech pauses – Increased capacity – More natural sound • Voice. ZTE CORPORATION .

but only to the Full and 1/2 rate frames for the 8 kb vocoder. 13kbps. 1/2 Rate . ZTE CORPORATION . & Blank • CRC is added to all the frames for the 13 kb vocoder. 1/8 Rate. • Current vocoder rates are 8kbps. 144 1/2 Rate Frame 72 1/4 Rt. 1/4 Rate . but that is ok because they consist mostly of background noise and have a higher processing gain. and 8kbps EVRC (Enhanced Variable Rate Coder) Copyright 2003. • CRC is not added to the lower rate frames in the 8 kb vocoder. 24 1/8 36 1/8 • The output is 20 ms frames at fixed rates: Full Rate.Variable Rate Vocoding bits 192 Rate Set 1 Frame Sizes Full Rate Frame bits 288 Rate Set 2 Frame Sizes Full Rate Frame 96 1/2 Rate Frame 48 1/4 Rt.

ZTE CORPORATION .Variable Rate Voice Bit and PCM Where is Vocoder? Analog voice Variable Rate PCM BTS BSC MSC Copyright 2003.

S Decoder Viterbi Decoded: HELLO FOLKS Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Interleaving Method Convolutional Coding & Interleaving Example: Bits to be Txed: Convolutionally Encoded: Interleaved: Hello… Encode Convolutiona Interleaver l HELLO HHEELLLLOO FOLKS FFOOLLKKSS ELSOLHLOFK LEOLSHOLKF Bits Rxed: EL SOL HLOFK LEOLSHOLKF DeInterleaver De-Interleaved: HHEELLL – OO FFO – LLKK.

Channel Coding -Convolutional Encoder c0 D D D From this figure: Constraint length(K) = 4 Code length(N) =3 Code rate=1/3 g0 g1 c1 c2  Constraint length(K) = Shift Register Number + 1  Code length(N) = input information bit + supervising bit  Code rate(R) = input information bit/code length Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .arrange in 4 by 4 matrix 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 x x x x 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Interference sequence: 1 0 0 1 x x x x 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Output from receiver matrix:1 x 0 1 0 x 1 1 0 x 0 0 1 x 1 0 Copyright 2003.Channel Coding -Block Interleaver Encoder Block Interleaver principle:input according to row and output according to columns For example: An Origination stream 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0.

because each code stream adds supervising bit for rectified Block Interleaver Encoder: not change the efficiency but have some delays.Convolutional Encoder & Interleaver Encoder Convolutional Encoder: increase the reliability but reduce the transmitting efficiency. ZTE CORPORATION .because the transmitter and receiver must process to writing first and then reading Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .In order to keep the user‘s information secret .Scramble The paging channel also includes many import information such as user‘s IMSI. Copyright 2003.we use the data scrambling.

ZTE CORPORATION .Spread Spectrum  Spread code rate: 1.2288Mcps  Spread code Forward Link:Walsh code Reverse Link: Long PN code Copyright 2003.

25 MHz frequency range The final step is to convert the two baseband signals to radio frequency (RF) in the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz range Copyright 2003.2288 Mcps The forward traffic channel is combined with two different PN sequences: ―I‖ and ―Q‖ Baseband filtering ensures the waveforms are contained within the 1.2288 Mcps Walsh Function S Q Baseband Filter sin(2pfct) Q Q-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 1.2 ksps from Power Control Mux Baseband Filter G A I N cos(2pfct) I 1.Modulation-QPSK&OQPSK I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 1.2288 Mcps I 19. ZTE CORPORATION .

CDMA CHANNEL STRUCTURE AND MODULATION Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .III.

the student will be able to master: -. ZTE CORPORATION .Sync .CDMA Call Processing -. Traffic -.New Channels in CDMA20001X Copyright 2003.Objectives Upon completion of this lesson.The reverse channel in IS-95 Access.The forward channel in IS-95 Pilot . Paging and Traffic -.

2 IS-2000 CDMA Channels Copyright 2003.1.1.1 IS-95 CDMA Channels 3.Contents 3. ZTE CORPORATION .2 Reverse CDMA Channels 3.1 Forward CDMA Channels 3.

IS-95 CDMA Channels Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003.that means the pilot is a ―structural beacon‖which does not contain a character steam.in order to identify different base station.Pilot Channel Function:  obtains a phase offset by short PN sequences.  transmitted constantly by the base station  use Walsh code 0.  obtains basis timing information  assisted handoff:mobile station use pilot strength(signal strength comparisons between base stations) to identify handoff candidates and to perform soft handoffs Characteristic:  Uncoded natured of pilot signal.

8138 microseconds per chip = 781.Pilot Channel Generation Walsh Function 0 I PN 1.25 microsecond Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .2288 Mcps Pilot Channel (All 0’s) Q PN • The Walsh code zero spreading sequence is applied to the Pilot • The use of short PN sequence offsets allows for up to 512 distinct Pilots per CDMA channel • The PN offset index value (0-511 inclusive) for a given pilot PN sequence is multiplied by 64 to determine the actual offset – Example: 15 (offset index) x 64 = 960 PN chips – Result: The start of the pilot PN sequence will be delayed 960 chips x 0.

 The duration of the sync channel frames matches the period of repetition of the short PN codes transmitted on the pilot channel.Sync Channel  Once a strong pilot channel is located.  This information transmitted at a rate of 1200bps.the synchronization with the sync channel is immediately known. ZTE CORPORATION .  This action facilitates the acquisition of the sync channel by the mobile station Copyright 2003.  Therefore.is contained in the sync channel message.once the mobile station acquires synchronization with the pilot channel.the mobile station listens to the corresponding sync channel for system information.

ZTE CORPORATION .666ms.Sync Channel(Cont.) Function:  Carries a data stream of essential system identification and parameter information used by mobiles during system acquisition stage  PILOT_PN(9bits)  SYS_TIME(36bits)  LC_STATE(42bits)  PRAT(2bits) (Acquired Pilot) Sync Channel Characteristic:  Bit rate is 1200 bps  Sync channel has a frame duration of 26.matches the the period of Short PN Sequences Copyright 2003.

in units of 80 ms.00 if 9600 bps.01 if 4800 bps Copyright 2003.Sync Channel Message PILOT_PN(Pilot PN Sequence Offset Index) Set to the pilot PN offset for the base station (in units of 64 chips). assigned by the network planner LC_STATE ( Long Code State ) Provides the mobile station with the base station long code state at the time given by the SYS_TIME field. minus the pilot PN offset. generated dynamically PRAT (Paging Channel Data Rate ) The data rate of the paging channel for this system. determined by the network planner. ZTE CORPORATION . generated dynamically SYS_TIME (System Time ) GPS system-wide time as 320 ms after the end of the last super-frame containing any part of this message.

Sync Channel Generation Bits Modulation Symbols Chips Walsh Function 32 I PN R = 1/2 K=9 Convolutional Encoder and Repetition 1200 bps 4800 sps Block Interleaver 16*8 4800 sps 1. ZTE CORPORATION .2288 Mcps Q PN Copyright 2003.

unused paging channels can be used as forward traffic channel  Transmits information at a fixed data rate of either 9600 or 4800 bps.as specified by the ―PRAT‖ parameter sent in the sync channel message Copyright 2003.Paging Channels Paging Channel Used by the base station to transmit system overhead information and mobile station-specific messages.  There is one paging channel per sector per CDMA carrier  The Paging Channel uses Walsh code 1 up to 7. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .a traffic channel is assigned by the base station for the mobile station to use.A paging channel notifies mobile stations that they are receiving an incoming call.Paging Channels(Cont.  The base station sends the following messages to all of the paging channels: System parameters message Access parameters message CDMA channel list message Copyright 2003.  Once the mobile station accepts the page.)  The paging channel originates at the base station.

Paging Channel Overhead Message
System parameters message
Contains the most important CDMA configuration parameters

Access parameters message
Defines parameters used by the mobile stations when transmitting to the base station on the access channel

CDMA channel list message
Defines all the CDMA(frequency)channels supported by this base station

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Paging Channel Overhead Messages
ACC_MSG_SEQ

Access Parameters Message Overhead Messages
CONFIG_MSG_SEQ

System Parameters Message Paging Messages

Configuration Parameter Messages

CDMA Channel List Message
Extended System Parameters Message Extended Neighbor List Message Global Service Redirection Message

Mobile-StationDirected Messages

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Paging Channel Generation
Walsh function R = 1/2 K=9 9600 bps 4800 bps Convolutional Encoder & Repetition Block Interleaving 19.2 Ksps Scrambling I PN

1.2288 Mcps

Paging Channel Address Mask

1.2288 Long PN Code Mcps Generator

Decimator

19.2 Ksps
Q PN

 Walsh code #1 is used to spread the data. This results in an increase to 1.2288 Mcps  The Rate 1/2 convolutional encoder doubles the bit rate.  If the 4800 bps rate is used, the repetition process doubles the rate again, so that, at either rate, 384 modulation symbols per Paging Channel frame result  384 modulation symbols per frame times 50 frames per second = 19.2Ksps

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

ZTE CORPORATION .Paging Channel Mask Paging Channel is scrambled by the long code.offset by a mask constructed as follows: 41 29 28 24 23 21 20 9 8 0 1100011001101 00000 PCN 000000000000 PILOT_PN PCN: Paging channel number PILOT_PN: Pilot short PN code offset index Copyright 2003.

That means.So the random sequence rate is 19.Data Scrambling 19.another input is a random sequence.2ksps) coming out of the block interleaver.2 Ksps User Address Mask (ESN) Long Code PN Generator 1.2 Ksps Decimator Divide by 64 Data scrambling function: Because the paging channel includes many important information such as user‘s IMSI.(1.we use the data scrambling. ZTE CORPORATION .  Data scrambling is accomplished by modulo-2 addition(XOR).2288 Mcps 19.in order to assure the use‘s information secret.which created by decimator on long code generation.2288/64) Copyright 2003.one input is a modulation symbol(19.2kcps.Use the 64 times decimator to pickup the first chip of each 64 chips to form a random sequence.2 Ksps Modulation Symbols Block Interleaver 19.

one Sync channel. – This leaves each CDMA frequency with at least 55 traffic channels.Forward Traffic Channels CDMA Cell Site Pilot Forward Traffic Channel Forward Traffic Channel Sync • Forward Traffic Channel Paging Forward Traffic Channel • Used for the transmission of user and signaling information to a specific mobile station during a call. – Unused paging channels can provide up to 6 additional channels. ZTE CORPORATION . • Maximum number of traffic channels: 64 minus one Pilot channel. Copyright 2003. and 1 Paging channel.

2 ksps Decimator 800 Hz Q PN Copyright 2003.2288 Long PN Code Mcps Decimator Generation 19. ZTE CORPORATION .Forward Traffic Channel Generation bits symbols CHANNEL ELEMENT 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps (Vocoder) R = 1/2.2288 Mcps 19. K=9 19.2 ksps Convolutional Encoding and Repetition Power Control Bit chips I PN Walsh function Scrambling Block Interleaving M U X 1.2 Ksps User Address Mask (ESN-based) 1.

Forward traffic channel frame structure Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

E27.….E9 Copyright 2003.E31.Forward Traffic Channel Mask A forward traffic channel is scrambled with the long code.E22.E18. ZTE CORPORATION .offset by a mask constructed as follows: Permuted ESN=E0.

Power Control Sub-channel
Power Control Bit (800 bps) Data Scrambling

19.2 Ksps from Block Interleaver
19.2 Ksps

M U X

Scrambled Modulation Symbol or Power Control Bit
19.2 Ksps

1.2288 Mcps User Long Code

Decimator
Divide by 64

800 Hz Mux Timing

Decimator
Divide by 24

• Base station receiver estimates received signal strength of mobile over a 1.25 ms period (800/s) • A power control subchannel is transmitted continuously to MS – A power up/down command is sent 800 times a second • Uncoded to ensure rapid detection and response by the MS
Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Power Control Sub-channel
The power control subchannel is included by forward traffic channel,by use a power control bit to indicate power up/down of MS transmit power.
Each traffic channel frame(20ms) consist of 16 power control group(each group length 1.25ms),so the rate of power control is 16*(1s/20ms)=800bps 1.Every 1.25ms(800 times per second)the BS estimates the received signal strength on the reverse traffic channel of a particular mobile station 2.Based on this estimation,the base station determines whether that mobile station should increase or decrease its transmission power 3.A power up(0) or power down(1) one-bit command is sent by the base station to that mobile station 800 times a second on the corresponding forward traffic channel.This constitutes the ―Power control subchannel‖ for that mobile station.
Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Orthogonal Spreading
Power Control Bit (800 bps) Scrambled Data 800 Hz Mux Timing

M U 19.2 Ksps X

1.2288 Mcps

To Quadrature Spreading

Wt
Walsh Function from Index

• Each symbol output from the Mux is exclusive XORed by the assigned Walsh function • Walsh function has fixed chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps • Channels are distinguished from each other by Walsh function • Bandwidth used greatly exceeds source rate

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

2288 Mcps Walsh Function S Q Baseband Filter sin(2pfct) Q Q-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 1.25 MHz frequency range The final step is to convert the two baseband signals to radio frequency (RF) in the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz range Copyright 2003.2288 Mcps I 19.2288 Mcps The forward traffic channel is combined with two different PN sequences: ―I‖ and ―Q‖ Baseband filtering ensures the waveforms are contained within the 1. ZTE CORPORATION .2 ksps from Power Control Mux Baseband Filter G A I N cos(2pfct) I 1.Quadrature Spreading & Baseband Filtering I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 1.

GAIN CONTROL: the gain of the overhead channels(pilot.and paging)in the composite I and Q is set. ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003.The gain of each forward traffic channel is constantly adjusted by the reverse link power control process.sync.QPSK Modulation Quadri-Phase Shift Key (QPSK) Modulation BASEBAND: The total frequency band occupied by the aggregate of all the information signals used to modulate a carrier FILTER:Electronic circuit devised to modify the frequency distribution of a signal spectrum BASEBAND FILTER:filter(used in quadrature modulation)that limits the input signal to the SyQuest band +-T/2.where T is the transmitted pulse rate.

• This ensures that a mobile station does not mistakenly decode the signal from a channel with the same Walsh code from the wrong base station. ZTE CORPORATION Walsh Code Pilot Channel “I” PN Code “Q” PN Code Walsh Code Sync Channel Walsh Code Paging Channel(s) Walsh Code Forward Traffic Channel(s) Composite “I” Composite “Q” . • The baseband I and Q signals for all channel cards are sent to the CORE module to be multiplexed together based on the PN offset.Composite “I” and “Q” • Each channel card has a combiner and works in a serial array to combine the I and Q signals for all forward channels in a partition sector or cell. Copyright 2003.

Forward Channel Demodulation Mobile Receiver Combiner Correlator1 Correlator2 Correlator3 Search Correlator De-Interleaver Viterbi Decoder Vocoder Speech Output IS-95A/J-STD-008 requires a minimum of four processing elements that can be independently directed: •Three elements must be capable of demodulating multipath components •One must be a ―searcher‖ that scans and estimates signal strength at each pilot PN sequence offset Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

2 IS-2000 CDMA Channels Copyright 2003.1 IS-95 CDMA Channels 3.Contents 3.1 Forward CDMA Channels 3. ZTE CORPORATION .1.1.2 Reverse CDMA Channels 3.

and each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels. ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003. nearly all systems today use only one paging channel per sector and only one access channel per paging channel.Access Channels 4800 bps • Used by the mobile station to: – Initiate communication with the base station not yet in a Call (such as transmit registration requests. call setup requests/origination message ) – Respond to Paging Channel messages • Has a fixed data rate of 4800 bps • Although a sector can have up to seven paging channels.

8 ksps 28.8 ksps Orthogonal Modulation 307.2 kcps 1.2288 Mcps Direct Sequence Spreading Q PN (No Offset) • Message attempts are randomized to reduce probability of collision • Two message types: – A response message (in response to a base station message) – A request message (sent autonomously by the mobile station) Copyright 2003.8 kpbs Access Channel Long Code Mask Long PN Code Generator 1. ZTE CORPORATION .2288 Mcps 1/2 PN Chip Delay D Block Interleaver 32*18 4.Access Channel Generation I PN (No Offset) Access Channel Information (88 bits/Frame) R = 1/3 Convolutional Encoder & Repetition 28.

64-ary Orthogonal Modulation 44 35 Walsh Lookup Table Wa lsh Chip w it hin a Wal sh Funct ion 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 1 1 0 1 2 34 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 34 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 11 01 01 11 01 11 11 01 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 00 10 10 00 10 00 00 10 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 00 10 10 00 01 11 11 01 11 01 01 11 10 00 00 10 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 101100 100011 Symbols 64 Chip Pattern of Walsh Code # 35 10001..one Walsh code is output – Six code symbols are converted to a decimal number from 0~63 – This number is used as an index into a Walsh lookup talbe – The 64 Walsh chips corresponding to that index are output – after orthogonal modulation.2kbps. Copyright 2003.for every six symbols input..the data rate is 28800bps. ZTE CORPORATION .the symbol rate is 28800/6 ×64= 307.11010 W a l s h F u n c t i o n I n d e x • Out of the block interleaver.

ZTE CORPORATION . PCN is the Number of the associated Paging Channel BASE_ID is the base station identification number.Access Channel Long Code Mask An Access Channel is scrambled by the long code. offset by a mask constructed as follows: 41 33 32 28 27 25 24 98 0 110001111 ACN PCN BASE_ID PILOT_PN Where: ACN is the Access Channel Number. and PILOT_PN is the Pilot short PN code offset index Copyright 2003.

4800. ZTE CORPORATION . 2400 and 1200 bps • 13 Kbps vocoder Rate Set 2 . 7200. 3600.9600.Reverse Traffic Channels Reverse Traffic Channel  Used when a call is in progress to send: • Voice traffic from the subscriber • Response to commands/queries from the base station • Requests to the base station  Supports variable data rate operation for: • A mobile station using the 8kb vocoder transmits information on the reverse traffic channel at variable data rates Rate Set 1 . 1800 bps Copyright 2003.14400.

2288Mcps Direct Sequence Spreading Q PN (no offset)  Uses Rate 1/3 Convolutional Encoder  Uses 32*18 block interleaving array  64-ary Orthogonal Modulation  Data burst randomizing Copyright 2003.2 ksps Orthogonal kcps Data Burst Randomizer Modulation 1.K=9 28.8 307.8 Convolutional ksps Encoder & Repetition Block Interleaver 28. ZTE CORPORATION .Reverse Traffic Channel Generation 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps R=1/3.2288 Mcps 1/2 PN Chip Delay D Long PN Code Generator I PN (no offset) User Address Mask 1.

Data Burst Randomizing
 Reapted symbols are deleted • Output stream of interleaver is gated with a time filter,During ―gate-off‖periods,transmit power is reduced • Gate cycle varies with the transmit data rate
 Randomizing transmitted data provides the effect of dispersing in time the power received at the cell site from the mobile stations •Easier de-spreading can occur when fewer interfering signals are present

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Direct Sequence Spreading
307.2 kcps
Data Burst Randomizer

1.2288 Mcps

To Quadrature Spreading

User Address Mask

Long Code PN Generator

1.2288 Mcps

• Output of the randomizer is direct sequence spread by the long code • Each mobile station spreads its reverse traffic channel using the same long PN code but with a different offset,which is determined by a unique 42-bit mask. • The mobile station can use one of two unique long code masks:

– A public long code mask based on the ESN
– A private long code mask
Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

Reverse Traffic Channel Long Code Mask
A Reverse Traffic Channel can be spread using the “public long code mask”which is constructed as follows:

41

32 31

0

110001111

Permuted ESN-S

The other option is to use a “private long code mask” based on the current contents of the 128-bit Shared Secret Data register.

Copyright 2003, ZTE CORPORATION

2288 Mcps • Q D Baseband Filter 1/2 PN Chip Time Delay Q sin(2 pf ct) PN • The channel is spread by a pilot PN sequence with a zero offset • Baseband filtering ensures that the waveform is contained within the required frequency limits • Baseband signals converted to radio frequency (RF) in the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz range Copyright 2003.2288 Mcps I From Data Burst Randomizer Baseband Filter I cos(2 pf ct) RF Converters 1. ZTE CORPORATION .OQPSK & Baseband Filtering I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 1.2288 Mcps PN chip 1.

901ns. ZTE CORPORATION . Why a half chip delay in the Q Component? The data spread by the Q PN short code sequence is delayed by half a PN chip time. This prevents the I and Q to change value simultaneously.406.OQPSK The reverse traffic channel data after direct sequence spreading is spread in quadrature by adding modulo-2.thus eliminating diagonal transitions Copyright 2003.This stream with the zero-offset I and Q PN short code sequences is used on the forward CDMA channel.with respect to the data spread by the I PN short code sequence.

Reverse Channel Demodulation BTS Receiver Demodulator Search Correlator BSC Combiner Search Demodulator Correlator De-Interleaver Search Demodulator Correlator Search Correlator Viterbi Decoder  Vocoder Speech Output Demodulator Power Control Decision U/D Command PN+ t User Long Code • IS-95A/J-STD-008 requires a process that is complementary to the mobile station modulation process • CDMA processing benefits from multipath components – Signals from several receive elements can be combined to improve receive signal quality Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

2Kbps 1.2288Mcps Walsh code 64 orthogonal modulation Orthogonal spread frequency.2288Mcps 19.1 Reverse Direct sequence ss MS identification Data scramble Orthogonal spread frequency for modulation Base station identification 1. ZTE CORPORATION .forward channel identification 307.2288Mcps Copyright 2003.Summary(1) Code sequence Length Application Access channel traffic channel Forward Paging channel traffic channel All Reverse channel All Forward channel All Reverse channel All Forward channel Purpose Code rate Long PN 242 .2Kbps Short PN 215 1.

ZTE CORPORATION .Summary(2) Conception: Convolution encoding Code symbol repetition Block interleaving Data scrambling Frame quality indicator(CRC) Encoder tail Data Burst randomizer Copyright 2003.

The mobile station may be in any of the following states: • Mobile Station Initialization State:Pilot Channel acquisition.implement long PN code sync • Mobile Station Idle State:MS monitors messages on the paging channel to receive configuration parameters from base station • System Access State:MS sends message to the BS on the access channel • Mobile Station Control on the traffic channel State:MS communicates with the base station using the forward and reverse traffic channel Copyright 2003.obtains LC_STATE. ZTE CORPORATION .many messages flow between the mobile and the base station.Receive Sync channel Message. SYS_TIME, PRAT system information.Mobile Station Call Processing States During call processing.sync short PN code.

originates a call. or performs registration System Access Mobile station is directed to a Traffic Channel Traffic Copyright 2003.CDMA MS Call Processing Power-Up Initialization Mobile station has fully acquired system timing Mobile station is in idle handoff with NGHBR_CONFG equal to ‗011‘ or is unable to receive Paging Channel Message Mobile station ends use of the Traffic Channel Mobile station receives an ACK to an Access Channel transmission other than an Origination Message or a Page Response Message Idle Mobile station receives a Paging Channel message requiring ACK or response. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .1 IS-95 CDMA Channels 3.1.Contents 3.2 IS-2000 CDMA Channels Copyright 2003.2 Reverse CDMA Channels 3.1.1 Forward CDMA Channels 3.

ZTE CORPORATION .Cdma2000 1xRTT Channel Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .6864Mcps) Radio Configure Identify a serial working mode of Forward link or reverse link.Forward Link:RC1~RC5 .Spreading Rates & Radio Configurations Spreading Rate Identify the PN code rate which used for the Forward Link or Reverse Link  SR1(”1x‖,1. the different of each RC is diversified parameters used in channel.each RC can support a set of data rate.2288Mcps)  SR3(”3x‖,3.Reverse Link:RC1~RC4 Copyright 2003.such as SR and modulation performance .

• IS-95B built on the IS-95A channels. and introduced two new channels – Fundamental channel was the same as IS-9A traffic channel – Supplemental code channels assigned to support rates above 14. ZTE CORPORATION .4Kbps • IS-2000 1xRTT continue to build on the IS-95 channels – IS-95 channels continue to be supported in IS-2000 to support IS-95 mobiles Forward IS-95A Pilot channel Sync channel Paging channel Forward Traffic Channel Fundamental channel Supplemental Code channel (F-SCCH) Channel List: 1xRTT vs. IS-95 Reverse Access channel Reverse Traffic Channel Fundamental channel Supplemental Code channel (R-SCCH) IS-95B 1xRTT Supplemental channel (F-SCH) Quick Paging channel (F-QPCH) Supplemental channel (R-SCH) Reverse Pilot channel (R-PICH) Copyright 2003.

Additional Channel in 1X Commercial System Forward Quick Paging Channel(F-QPCH) Forward Supplemental Channel(F-SCH) Reverse Pilot Channel Reverse Supplement Channel(R-SCH) Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

Paging Channel Modes  Non-slotted Mode Operation  The mobile station continuously monitors the Paging Channel  Paging and control message can be received on any slot by MS  Slotted Mode Operation  MS only operates in the slotted mode when it is in the ―idle state‖  A mobile station that monitors the paging channel only during certain assigned slots  The mobile station can ―sleep‖or reduce power consumption(for the power conservation) during nonactive states(during the slots when the paging channel is not being monitored) Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

mobile must monitor regular paging channel slot and decode several fields to determine whether page is for it or not. then mobile continues to sleep. this drains mobile batteries quickly Copyright 2003.F-QPCH Functions • Base Station use F-QPCH‘s signaling to inform MS which is surrounding of its coverage and work in slotted mode and just in idle state. ZTE CORPORATION . if have flag. the mobile monitors appropriate slot and decodes general page message • Without QPCH. • Mobile monitors QPCH to determine if there is a paging forthcoming on paging channel in its slot (looks at 1-bit paging indicator) • If no flag.

) • As long as there‘s no configuration change information for the mobile to capture. This equates to up to 40% decrease in the amount of battery power used to monitor an IS-95 paging channel with slotted paging implemented. the mobile‘s only going to be monitoring 2 bits vs.F-QPCH Functions(Cont. ZTE CORPORATION . The main purpose of QPCH is to save mobile battery life. an entire slot. Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION . (FCH is always assigned to each call)  Up to 2 F-SCH can be assigned to a single mobile  SCH cannot exist without having a fundamental channel established SCH-1 File transfer at 144 kbps Mobile 1 FCH Voice. power control and link continuity Copyright 2003.6 kbps) in the forward direction.Forward Supplemental Channel (F-SCH)  Assigned for high-speed packet data (>9.

Copyright 2003. reducing interference to others  The Reverse Pilot Channel is an unmodulated spread spectrum signal used to assist the base station in detecting a mobile station transmission. ZTE CORPORATION Pilot 384 NPN Chips Power Control 1 Power Control Group = 1536 NPN Chips N is the Spreading Rate number .Reverse Pilot Channel (R-PICH)  Implement Quick Power Control on the Forward Link (all '0's) Pilot  Allows base station to do timing Power Control Bit corrections without having to guess where mobile is (in search window) MUX A  Mobile can transmit at lower power.

6 kbps) • Difference between F-SCH and R-SCH is in Walsh code based spreading – F-SCH supports Walsh code lengths of 4 to 128 (1xRTT) or 1024 (3xRTT) depending on data rate and chip rate – R-SCH uses either a 2-digit or 4-digit Walsh code. ZTE CORPORATION .Reverse Supplemental Channel (R-SCH) • Used for high-speed packet data (>9. rate matching done by repetition of encoded and interleaved symbols • Walsh code allocation sequence is pre-determined and common to all mobiles • Users are differentiated using long PN code with user mask Copyright 2003.

6 kbps packet data capabilities Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Benefits of the CDMA2000 1x  Increased MS standby battery life (via Quick Paging Channel)  Use Forward Quick Power Control(via Reverse Pilot channel)  Total backward compatibility to reuse switch and call processing features  2-3 dB better coverage  Provides High speed 153.

IV. ZTE CORPORATION . CDMA KEY TECHNOLOGY Copyright 2003.

the student will be able to master: -. ZTE CORPORATION .power control  Identify the function of the reverse closed loop power control  Identify how to implement the Forward quick power control -.soft handoff  Identify that the handoff type when the mobile station is in the idle state  Identify the difference between soft and softer handoff  Identify the IS-95 system soft handoff processing  Identify the MS react to power control during soft handoff Copyright 2003.Objectives Upon completion of this lesson.

ZTE CORPORATION .2 Power Control In CDMA Soft Handoff In CDMA Copyright 2003.Contents 4.1 4.

so CDMA also called soft capacity limit  The goal is to keep each MS at the absolute minimum power level necessary to ensure acceptable service quality  Ideally the power received at the base station from each mobile station should be the same(minimum signal to interference)  MS which transmit excessive power increase interference to other Mobile station Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Why Power Control  CDMA is an interference-limited system based on the number of users.this creates a practical limit to how many users a system will sustain. the interference comes mainly from nearby users  each user is a noise source on the shared channel.

ZTE CORPORATION .Power Control Types Reverse Power Control Open-loop Power Control Closed-loop Power Control (Forward traffic Channel) Outer-loop Power Control Inner-loop Power Control Forward Power Control IS-95 Power Control IS-2000 Fast Power Control (Reverse Pilot Channel) Outer-loop Power Control Inner-loop Power Control Copyright 2003.

Reverse Open-loop Power Control Reverse Open Loop Power Control Mobile BTS  Reverse open loop power is mobile station controlling its transmit power  Reverse open loop power control consists of :  estimating how strong the mobile station should transmit based on a coarse measurement of how much power it is receiving from the base station  some correcting parameters delivered in the access parameters message  The Reverse open loop method of power control provides a quick response to changes in signal conditions. Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

Reverse Open-loop Power Control  Problems with Reverse Open Loop Power Control – Assumes same exact path loss in both directions. therefore the power received from other cell sites by mobile station introduces inaccuracies Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION . therefore. cannot account for asymmetrical path loss – Estimates are based on total power received.

ZTE CORPORATION . always at full power  Allows to compensate for the effects of fast fading Copyright 2003.Reverse Closed Loop Power Control Mobile Reverse Closed Loop Power Control BTS or Signal Strength Measurement Setpoint  Compensates for asymmetries between the forward and reverse paths  Consists of power up (0) & power down (1) commands sent to the mobile stations. based upon their signal strength measured at the Base Station and compared to a specified threshold(setpoint)  Each command requests a 1dB increase or decrease of the mobile station transmit power  Transmitted 800 times per second.

ZTE CORPORATION .Reverse Outer Loop Power Control Mobile Reverse Closed Loop Power Control BTS or Signal Strength Measurement BSC Setpoint Reverse Outer Loop Power Control FER  Most gradual form of reverse link power control – Setpoint is varied/dynamic according to the FER on the Reverse Traffic Channel (determined at the Base Station Controller) – Sampled at a rate of 50 frames per second (20 ms / frame) – Setpoint adjusted every 1-2 seconds Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION . The goal of outer loop power control is adjusting the setpoint(Eb/No) based on the reverse traffic channel FER value  If the received power from the mobile station.it sends a ―1‖ power control bit directing the mobile station to lower its output power  The setpoint itself is raised or lowered by the reverse outer loop power control to guarantee the desired frame error rate(FER) level.the base station sends a ―0‖power control bit directing the MS to raise its output power.if it is higher.typically 1%  Output power control bit is transmitted on the power control subchannel in forward traffic channel Copyright 2003.is below the specified S/N threshold(setpoint).as measured at the base station.

ZTE CORPORATION .Closed-loop Power Control Procedure Received the Frame Quality Information from the Reverse Link Outer-loop Algorithm Outer Loop Correction Closed-loop Control Demodulate and measure Eb/Nt Eb/No No Eb/Nt>Eb/No? Up Power Control Bit Yes Down Power Control Bit Base Station Puncture to Power Control Subchannel Mobile Power Control Command Measurement Power Control Command Measurement Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003. the output Eb/No is sent to Channel Card  The closed loop power control algorithm is implemented in Channel Card.Reverse Power Control in ZTE System  The open loop power control is implemented in mobile station  The outer loop power control algorithm is implemented in SVE module of BSC. the output power control command is punctured in the forward Fundamental Channel (traffic channel).

power FER Forward Link Power Control  The base station continually and slowly decreases power to each mobile station(each user‘s forward traffic channel)  As the FER (determined at the mobile station) increases. the mobile station requests a Forward Traffic Channel power increase Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Forward Power Control in IS-95 BSC Mobile BTS Adjust Fwd.

)  The power control frequency is maximum 50Hz  Power Control based on Messages for Radio Configuration 1  Power Control based on EIB for Radio Configuration 2 Copyright 2003.Forward Power Control in IS-95(Cont. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION . there is a faster method used for Forward Power Control operating much like the IS-95 Reverse Link Power control described next  In order to implement Forward Link Quick Power Control.Forward Quick Power Control in IS-2000  In CDMA2000.we use Reverse Pilot channel which includes power control subchannel Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Forward Quick Power Control Received the Frame Quality Information from the Forward Link Outer-loop Algorithm Outer Loop Correction Closed-loop Control Demodulate and measure Eb/Nt Eb/No No Eb/Nt>Eb/No? Up Power Control Bit Yes Down Power Control Bit Mobile Station Puncture to Power Control Subchannel Base Station Power Control Command Measurement Power Control Command Measurement Copyright 2003.

and increases the overall capacity of the system transmit power. power Reverse Outer Loop Power Control FER Setpoint FER Forward Link Power Control  All types of power control work together to minimizes power consumption at the mobile stations. Copyright 2003.Summary of Power Control Reverse Open Loop Power Control Mobile Reverse Closed Loop Power Control BTS or Signal Strength Measurement BSC Adjust Fwd. ZTE CORPORATION .

2 Power Control In CDMA Soft Handoff In CDMA Copyright 2003.1 4.Contents 4. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .Handoff  Handoff is the process by which a mobile station maintains communications with the Mobile Telephone Switching center(MSC). when traveling from the coverage area of one base station to that of another  Handoff keep the call established during the following conditions: – Subscriber crosses the boundaries of a cell – Subscriber experiences noise or other interference above a specified threshold – A base station component experiences an out-of-service condition during a call Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .CDMA Handoffs While in the Idle State Idle Handoff Soft Handoff Softer Handoff During a Call Inter-System Soft Handoff CDMA-to-CDMA Handoff CDMA-to-Analog Handoff Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .CDMA Idle Handoff PN 108 Ec/Io 104 108 A Idle handoff neither soft handoff nor hard handoff. PN 104 Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .CDMA Idle Handoff(Cont.) >3dB Ec/Io PN 108 104 108 A PN 104 Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .CDMA Soft Handoff CDMA Cell Site B Cell Site B Cell Site A Cell Site A  Soft Handoff:The mobile station starts communications with a target base station without interrupting communications with the current serving base station – Make-before-break – Directed by the mobile not the base station.Undetectable by user – Improves call quality  Can involve up to three cells simultaneously and use all signals – Mobile station combines the frames from each cell Copyright 2003.

on a frame-by-frame basis  Users are totally unaware of handoff Copyright 2003.CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics  CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset  Handset continuously checks available pilots  Handset tells system pilots it currently sees  System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.). ZTE CORPORATION . tells handset  Handset assigns its fingers accordingly  Each end of the link chooses what works best.

that means multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset  Softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element  Communications are maintained across both sectors until the mobile station transition has completed  MSC is aware but does not participate  All activities are managed by the cell site  Signals received at both sectors can be combined for improved quality Copyright 2003.CDMA Softer Handoff alpha beta gamma  Softer Handoff is between sectors of the same cell. ZTE CORPORATION .

CDMA-to-CDMA Hard Handoff PSTN PSTN MSC MSC T1 or E1 Links TIA/EIA-41D MSC BSC BSC BSC A (ƒ1) B (ƒ2) A B  Between cells operating on different frequencies  Between cells that could be on the same frequency. ZTE CORPORATION . but which are subordinated to different MSC Copyright 2003.

but received by the mobile with sufficient strength to indicate that the corresponding forward traffic Channels could be successfully demodulated (max 5 pilots) – Neighbors: Pilots not currently on the Active or Candidate Sets. it told to mobile by system.excluding the pilot in other sets  All pilots in a set have the same frequency assignment  These sets can be updated during handoff by the base station Copyright 2003.integer multiplies of PILOT_INC .as nearby sectors to check(at least 20 pilots) – Remaining:All other possible pilots used by the current system on the current CDMA frequency.Pilot Sets  Pilot sets:the handset considers pilots in sets – Active: Pilots of sectors actually in use (max 6 pilots) – Candidate:Pilots not currently in the Active Set. ZTE CORPORATION .

Rules of Soft Handoff  The MS assists the BS in the handoff process by measuring and reporting the strengths of received pilots using a Pilot Strength Measurement Message  Handset sends PSMM to the system whenever:  It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD  An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time  A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

This message uses in the Reverse Traffic Channel  A PSMM is sent to the system under one of the following conditions:  If MS finds a pilot in Neighbor or Remaining sets exceeds T_ADD  If an active set pilot drops below T_DROP after T_TDROP time  If a Candidate pilot exceeds an active pilot by T_COMP Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .Pilot Strength Measurement Message A B Timing C Pilot Channel  The Pilot Strength Measurement Message is used by the mobile station to direct the Base Station Controller(BSC) in the handoff process.

ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003.then it will updates its Active Set and sends a HCM to the BSC.Extended Handoff Direction Message  The Extended Handoff Direction Message(EHODM) is used by the Base Station Controller(BSC) to tell the mobile station on which base stations the BSC has allocated traffic channels for that user  An EHODM Message uses in the forward traffic channel  When the mobile station receives the EHODM message from BSC.

ZTE CORPORATION .Pilot Search Windows Search Window for pilots in the Active and Candidate Set: SRCH_WIN_A Earliest arriving usable multipath component of the pilot Search Window for pilots in the Neighbor Set: SRCH_WIN_N pilot PN offset Search Window for pilots in the Remaining Set: SRCH_WIN_R pilot PN offset  A search window is a range of PN offsets (measured in chips) where the mobile station searches for usable multipath components of the pilots in a set – Usable means that multipath components can be used for demodulation of an associated forward traffic channel by MS Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .System Parameters Message Field MSG_TYPE (‗00000001‘) PILOT_PN CONFIG_MSG_SEQ SID NID REG_ZONE TOTAL_ZONES ZONE_TIMER MULT_SIDS MULT_NIDS BASE_ID BASE_CLASS PAGE_CHAN MAX_SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX Length (bits) 8 9 6 15 16 12 3 3 1 1 16 4 3 3 HOME_REG FOR_SID_REG FOR_NID_REG POWER_UP_REG POWER_DOWN_REG PARAMETER_REG REG_PRD BASE_LAT BASE_LONG REG_DIST SRCH_WIN_A SRCH_WIN_N SRCH_WIN_R NGHBR_MAX_AGE 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 22 23 11 4 4 4 4 PWR_REP_THRESH PWR_REP_FRAMES PWR_THRESH_ENABLE PWR_PERIOD_ENABLE PWR_REP_DELAY RESCAN T_ADD T_DROP T_COMP T_TDROP EXT_SYS_PARAMETER EXT_NGHBR_LIST GLOBAL_REDIRECT RESERVED 5 4 1 1 5 1 6 6 4 4 1 1 1 1 Copyright 2003.

Pilot Dropped into Neighbor Set. Drop Timer started Pilot Strength exceeds T_ADD Drop Timer expires PSMM Sent (request to remove) EHOD message received. Pilot Added to Active Set.IS-95 Soft Handoff Signaling EHOD message received. EHOC message sent. ZTE CORPORATION . Pilot added to Candidate Set Pilot strength drops below T_DROP. NLU message received T_TDROP Copyright 2003. EHOC message sent. NLU message received PSMM sent (request to add) .

3.) 1.A Walsh code is designated for the forward traffic channel allocated on the new base station associated with the new pilot.Then.IS-95 Soft Handoff Signaling(Cont. 2.The mobile station sends a PSMM requesting the strong pilot added to the active set and transfers this pilot to the candidate set.The BSC directs the desired pilot‘s base station to allocate a forward traffic channel.the mobile station starts demodulating traffic from the new base station and sends a handoff completion message(HCM) on the reverse traffic channel.The pilot strength exceeds T_ADD. The mobile station transfers the new pilot from the candidate set to the active set. ZTE CORPORATION . Copyright 2003.The current base station sends an EHODM with the new pilot included in the ―official‖ active set list.

Copyright 2003.and the mobile station starts the handoff drop timer.the mobile station sends a PSMM requesting the weak pilot removed from the active set. 6.stops demodulating traffic associated with the weak pilot 7.When the handoff drop timer expires.Sends a handoff completion message on the new reverse traffic channel.The mobile station updates its neighbor set. The BTS sends a neighbor list update message with the composite neighbor list compiled by the BSC. ZTE CORPORATION .The base station sends an EHODM with the weak pilot removed from the ―official‖ active set list.The pilot strength drops below T_DROP.IS-95 Soft Handoff Signaling(Cont. 8. 5.The mobile station moves the pilot from the active set to the neighbor set(with the AGE counter set to zero).) 4.

P0>p1+T_COMP*0.5dB Copyright 2003.5dB  t2-PSMM sent.5dB  t0-PSMM sent.p0>T_ADD  t1-PSMM sent. Candidate Set Comparison Threshold  PSMM are triggered not only when the strength of a pilot from the neighbor set exceeds the T_ADD threshold. but also when it exceeds the strength of a pilot already in the active set by T_COMP*0. ZTE CORPORATION .Active vs.P0>P2+T_COMP*0.

ZTE CORPORATION .Soft Handoff Parameters T_ADD T_DROP T_TDROP T_COMP SRCH_WIN_A SRCH_WIN_N SRCH_WIN_R  SOFT_SLOPE  ADD_INTERCEPT  DROP_INTERCEPT Copyright 2003.

Soft Handoff Parameters(Cont. ZTE CORPORATION 40 15 452 .) SRCH_WIN_A SRCH_WIN_N SRCH_WIN_R Window size (PN chips) SRCH_WIN_A SRCH_WIN_N SRCH_WIN_R Window size (PN chips) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 6 8 10 14 20 28 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 60 80 100 130 160 226 320 7 Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Soft Handoff Parameters(Cont.) T_TDROP Drop Timer Value(s) T_TDROP Drop Timer Value (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 4 6 9 13 19 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 27 39 55 79 112 159 225 319 Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION . it decreases its mean power output level by 1 dB.  If the mobile station receives different power control bits from different power control subchannels. their power control bits are diversity combined into one per 1. the mobile station increases its mean power output level by 1 dB .Power Control during Soft Handoff  During soft handoff. Copyright 2003.  Only if the power control bits from ALL power control subchannels request a power increase. the mobile station receives power control bits from multiple base stations.  If two or more power control subchannels are identical.25 ms time slot.

Thank You Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

Copyright 2003. ZTE CORPORATION .

ZTE CORPORATION .Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Copyright 2003.

ZTE CORPORATION .Copyright 2003.

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