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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Presented By: Mounika Rao Paladugu 31 Siddhant Kotak 47 Sundar Ganesh Kumar - 51

PURPOSE OF EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION


Employee orientation is a procedure for providing new employees with a basic background information about the firm. To feel comfortable and part of the team. To know the basic information to function effectively. To understand organization in broad sense. To socialize into firms culture, values and way of doing it.

ORIENTATION PROCESS
Employee Handbook Informal Orientation Orientation Technology

Just asking the employee, How are you doing? will go a long way towards making your orientation a great one

TRAINING PROCESS
Training is a change in skills. Training means giving new or current employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. It can help people learn the new skills that are required to meet new expectations, both formal and informal. Training can help people accept the challenge of their evolving jobs. Build a common understanding of the organization's purpose. Show management's commitment and loyalty to employees Develop people so they can increase their responsibilities and contribute to the organization in new ways.

FOUR STEP TRAINING PROCESS


1. Need analysis stepidentify the knowledge and skills of the job. 2. Instructional design step- review training program and estimate budget. 3. Implement step- training the employee group. 4. Evaluation step- to assess the programs success or failures.

TRAINING, LEARNING AND MOTIVATION


Make the learning meaningful- provide a birds eye view, present the information logically and use a variety of familiar examples. Make skills transfer easy- transfer new skills and behaviors from training site to job site. Reinforce the learning- make sure the learner gets plenty of feedback.

ANALYZING TRAINING NEEDS


Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is defined as the Identification of training requirements and the most cost effective means of meeting those requirements. Analyzing training needs depends on whether you are training new or current employees. Current employee training need is more complex. TASK ANALYSIS is detailed study of job to determine what specific skills required to perform that particular job.

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
It is the process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether the employer should correct such deficiencies through training. Ways to identify how a current employee is doing 1. Performance appraisals 2. Job related performance data 3. Observations by supervisors 4. Test of things like job knowledge, skills etc 5. Individual employee daily diaries.

DESIGNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM

Training objectives

Training budget

Training methods

Training budget plays an important role in determining the actual design of the program. The budget includes development costs, direct and indirect costs and cost of evaluating the program.

ON THE JOB TRAINING


OJT means training the person to learn the job while working on it. Types of OJT:a. b. c. Coaching or Understudy Method:- Experienced worker or trainees supervisor trains the employee. Job Rotation:- Employee moves from job to job at planned intervals Special assignments:- Gives experience to lower level executives in working on actual problems

STEPS IN ON THE JOB TRAINING


1. 2. 3. 4. Prepare the Learner Present the Operations Do a tryout Follow Up

APPRENTINCESHIP TRAINING
People becomes skilled workers, usually through a combination of formal learning and long term on the job training. The Apprenticeship Act, 1961 was enacted by the GOI which intends to achieve:1. 2. Promotion of new skills Improvement/Refinement of old skills through theoretical and practical training in number of trades and occupations.

JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING


Many jobs consists of a logical sequence of steps that has to be learnt step by step. This step by step training is called JIT. List all the necessary steps in the job in the proper sequence Then list a corresponding key point beside each step. The steps in JIT sheet show trainees what to do, and the key points show how its to be done and why.

LECTURES
Lecturing is the quick and the simple way to present the knowledge to large group of trainees, as and when the sales force needs to learn a new products features. PROGRAMMED LEARNING Step by step self learning method that consists of :1. 2. 3. Presenting the questions, facts or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing the feedback on the accuracy of the answers.

AUDIOVISUAL BASED TRAINING


It includes the use of DVDs, films, PowerPoint etc to train the employees is a widely used technique. Some firms use real incidents for audiovisual training like Thomas Cook India Limited and Jet Airways; they record the calls made by the customers for complaints and use the same for training purposes. More expensive compared to lectures but gives advantage when there is a need to expose the trainees to the situation which is not easily demonstrable in live lectures Organization wide Training and its too costly to move the trainers from one place to another.

VESTIBULE TRAINING
Trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment which they will use in the job, but are trained off the job in a separate room or vestibule. Necessary when training is too expensive or dangerous to train employees on the job.

TELETRAINING AND VIDEOCONFERENCING


A trainee in a central location teaches groups of employees at a remote locations via televised hookups. E.g. is Honda America. Videoconferencing allows people to communicate live with people in another city or country or with groups in several cities.

EPSS
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) are sets of computerized tools and displays that automate training, documentation and phone support. Called as modern job aids. A job aid is the set of instructions, diagrams, or similar methods available t the job site to guide the workers. It works particularly well on the complex jobs that require multiple steps or where its dangerous to forget a step.

SIMULATED LEARNING
Means different things to different people. It includes virtual reality in which the trainee is put in an artificial three dimensional environment that simulates events and situations that might be experienced in the job. Sensory devices transmit how the trainee is responding to the computer and what the trainee hears, feels and sees US Armed Forces; IBM at Play

LIFELONG TRAINING TECHNIQUES


It means providing employees with the continuing learning experiences over their tenure with the firm, with the aims of ensuring they have the opportunity to learn the skills they need to do their job and to expand their horizons. It may include from basic remedial skills to college

MOBILE LEARNING
Also called demand learning means delivering learning content on demand over mobile devices like cell phones, laptops and I-pads; whenever and wherever the learner has the time and desire to access. IBM uses it to deliver just in time information

CREATING YOUR OWN TRAINING PROGRAM


Set the training objectives Use a detailed job description Develop an abbreviated task analysis record form Develop a job instruction sheet Compile training program for the job

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
Imparts knowledge
Changes attitudes Increases skills

Dual aim
Useful for succession planning On-the-job / Off-the-job

Long-term development
Future managers

ON THE JOB MANAGERIAL TRAINING

MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING


JOB ROTATION
Broaden understanding Test abilities Identify strengths & weaknesses

COACHING/UNDERSTUDY
Work with senior manager Phase of succession planning Relieves executive of certain responsibilities Gets a chance to learn

MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING


ACTION LEARNING
5-25 member teams Assigning real world business problems Situations extend beyond their usual area of expertise Prof. Reginald Revans, (Revans, 1980) described the formula: L=P+Q where L is learning, P is programming (or programmed knowledge with simulations) and Q is questioning to create insight into what people see, hear or feel.

MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING


PHASES IN AL:
Framework - 6-8 weeks planning Action forum 2-3 days discussion & action plan development Accountability sessions - every month for 3 months to review implementation of action plan

MANAGERIAL ON-THE-JOB TRAINING


ACTION LEARNING:
It is about solving problems and getting things done Increase awareness Enables to identify personal developmental challenges More disciplined ways of working in powerful teams Peer support Creativity flexibility and PS skills Innovation

OFF THE JOB MANAGERIAL TRAINING

MANAGERIAL OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING


CASE STUDY METHOD:
Written description of organizational problem Analyze case Diagnose problem Present findings or solution Popular in business schools and training academies Detailed theme, background stories, personal histories Participants familiarize themselves with relevant learning themes and decision support situations

MANAGERIAL OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING


MANAGEMENT GAMES:
"The best way to learn is to get involved" form 5-6 person groups compete to get solutions for a simulated marketplace participative decision making

OUTSIDE SEMINARS UNIVERSITY RELATED PROGRAMS:


executives go back to school refresher courses programs like leadership and supervision

MANAGERIAL OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING


ROLE PLAYING:
Situation based activity Create situation Trainees assume roles or parts to be played One can experiment in role playing, which may not be possible in real life Modeling Role playing Social reinforcement Transfer of training

BEHAVIOUR MODELLING

MANAGERIAL OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING


CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES & IN-HOUSE DEVELOPMENT COURSES
Useful for very large firms Collaboration with academic institutions Web portals for e-learning Catalogue of courses Programs from professional associations

MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE


The only thing constant is CHANGE Culture, strategy, vision & mission, structure, technologies, attitudes, skills - what to change? Definite failure without employees support Getting this support is easier said than done Skepticism and apprehension Lewins Change Process

LEWINS CHANGE PROCESS


Unfreezing
Establish a sense of urgency Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis

Moving

Create a guiding coalition Develop & communicate a shared vision Consolidate gains and produce more change Help employees make the change

Refreezing

Reinforce the new way of doing things Monitor & assess the progress

ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Usually involves action research. Improves organizational effectiveness by applying behavioral science Initiates improved problem solving Gives rise to empowerment Gets employees to formulate solutions themselves:
Human Process Applications Technostructural interventions HR Management Applications Strategic OD Applications

TRAINING EVALUATION KIRKPATRICKS FOUR LEVELS

UNIVERSAL TRANINING RULES


Learning objectives Begin Slowly Set Goals Flexible schedule Quality & not Quantity Evaluate, and update

Thank You!!