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**Topics covered – 1. DC Motors 2. DC Generators 3. AC 3 phase Induction Motors 4. AC 3 phase Synchronous Machines 5. Fundamentals of Power Controls
**

6. USF Course Material available at; thomasblairpe.com/EMD

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

Chapter 4 - DC Generators

AC generator E = B*L*V Slip Ring Component of V perpendicular to B

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

Chapter 4 - DC Generators

Commutator

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

Chapter 4 - DC Generators

Which unit below is AC machine and which is DC machine?

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

.E. P.DC Generators Slot construction Lap Winding 4 coils = 4 slots = 4 commutator bars 2 poles = 2 brushes eA+eB+eC+eD = 0 (no circ current) Brush Volt = eB+eC or eA+eD IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 4 .

P.E.DC Generators Magnitude -> angle between V and B IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .Chapter 4 .

E.DC Generators Voltage in slot 4/10 max Voltage in slot 1/7 min IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 4 . . P.

DC Generators Proportional to flux and speed Off neutral brush effectively reduces Z IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E. .Chapter 4 .

Chapter 4 . .DC Generators Armature reaction Current produces Magnetic Field IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P.

DC Generators Armature induced field adds to pole induced field. Also. . saturation of points 2 .E. P.3 (Pole Tip Saturation) causes reduced EO IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Resultant field shifts neutral point.Chapter 4 .

P. does not change Saturation at main poles -> EO still effected. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.DC Generators Commutating Pole Field proportional to load Compensate neutral shift Due to armature reaction (Slightly greater than Armature reaction flux) Note.Chapter 4 .E. .

E. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 4 . .DC Generators No Load operation Saturation Curve Field Flux vs Exciting amps (similar to B-H Curve) Designed to operate at “knee” of point a & b. P.

.E.DC Generators Shunt Generator – no external field source needed IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 4 . P.

reduced EO Moving P to M. . increases EO IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 4 . P.DC Generators Voltage Control Nonlinear Moving P to N.E.

Chapter 4 .DC Generators EO noload – intersection of Saturation curve & RF For this example: RF > 200 W E0=0 Critical Value (When starting. . P. where should rheostat position be??) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

DC Generators Exciting current constant.E. speed constant.Chapter 4 . . EO constant E12 depend on drop across RO Load Curve Shown – typical drop less than 10% (Pole Tip Saturation also leads to E12 drop) Shunt Generator – typical drop about 15% due to EO drop IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

E. P. .Chapter 4 .DC Generators Compound Generator – Series & Shunt Coils Series coil same direction as Shunt – mmf adds E0 raises as load increases maintaining E12 IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

DC Generators Over-compound generator E12 increases. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . Differentialcompounded – Series coil opposite direction – mmf subtracts.Chapter 4 .E. EO drops as load increases. P.

E.DC Generators # Poles = # Brush sets Larger Machine -> More poles -> More brush sets Control amps per brush (current density) Also more Brush per Brush set -> reduce current density. . Generator construction Field Stationary Electromagnet – Salient Poles Air Gap 1mm .5mm IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.Chapter 4 .

Chapter 4 . P.E. .DC Generators IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

DC Generators Armature Construction Rotating Commutator. & Coils IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Iron Core. .E. P.Chapter 4 .

E.Chapter 4 . P.DC Generators # slots = # coils = # commutator sections Mica insulator between commutator sections Coils connected to commutating element Eccentricity causes brush bounce -> arcing IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

.DC Generators Brush set connection – alternating + and - IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.Chapter 4 .

E.Chapter 5 – DC Motors Constructed same as DC generator Torque & Speed control with high efficiency Starting methods IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .

.Chapter 5 – DC Motors EO proportional to speed At rest EO = 0 At steady state EO = ES – I*R EO = counterelectromotive force (CEMF) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P.

Chapter 5 – DC Motors Mechanical Power & Torque - IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E. P.

P.Chapter 5 – DC Motors Mechanical Torque – proportional to flux and armature current IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E.

P. . what happens to DC motor on Loss of Field Current? IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.Chapter 5 – DC Motors Speed of Rotation – Proportional to Es and inversely proportional to flux (field current) Bonus Question.

E. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.Chapter 5 – DC Motors Rheostat allows control of EO -> speed control Efficiency very poor Small motors only. .

P.E. .Chapter 5 – DC Motors Speed control via field control Flux increase -> speed decrease Operate above base speed IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Tload increases. causing armature current to increase causing speed to drop Speed regulation good (10%-20%) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 5 – DC Motors As load increases. P. .E.

Chapter 5 – DC Motors Series Motor – Different torque speed characteristic Starting torque higher Reduction in load = reduced flux = higher speed Bonus Question – what happens if load removed? IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E. .

P.E.Chapter 5 – DC Motors As load decreases. Tload decreases. . causing armature current to decrease causing flux to drop causing speed to increase rapidly Speed regulation poor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 5 – DC Motors Compound DC Motor – Both series & shunt field No load. .E. series field adds to mmf -> increased flux -> speed decreases Regulation 10% . P. shunt field controls max speed Full load.30% Differential Compound – series field mmf subtracts from shunt field mmf IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

.Chapter 5 – DC Motors IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P.

E. . P.Chapter 5 – DC Motors Direction of Rotation – Reverse Armature or Field Commutation polarity associated with Armature polarity IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

3phase winding or squirrel cage winding Squirrel cage induction motor Bare copper (aluminum) bars welded to copper (aluminum) end rings Wound rotor induction motor Three phase insulated winding – three slip rings – external resistor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. 3phase winding Rotor – laminated core. slots. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Stator – laminated core.E. slots. P.

. P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

E. . P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Faraday’s Law Lorentz Force IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Field speed = 120 *f/p Salient Pole Stator -> Smooth Stator Phase group -> group = #phase * #poles(*#winding) Group = 3*2=6 #slot = #coils Lap wound coil construction IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

P. 41 .E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines stator IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P. .E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar 42 Tom Blair.

. water to air cooled TEAAC – totally enclosed.E. non ventilated TEFC – totally enclosed.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Motor enclosures TENV – totally enclosed. air to air cooled WPII – Weather protected (two 90 degree turns in air path) ODP – Open drip proof IEEE EMD Seminar 43 Tom Blair. blower cooled TEWAC – totally enclosed. fan cooled TEBC – totally enclosed. P.

P. . asynchronous speed IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Synchronous speed vs.

When load torque = motor torque. . P. Induced current in magnetic field induces force on conductors in direction of rotating magnetic field. As rotor speed increases – rate at which rotor bars cut field reduces (reducing E2) 6. Field induced voltage (E2) in rotor bars.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Starting Characteristics – 1. Reduced E2 -> reduced rotor current ->reduced force 7. 5. Revolving field set up by applied stator voltage 2.E. Induced voltage induces current in rotor bars. steady state IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. 4. 3.

P.E. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Power & PF vs loading while motor at speed.

P. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Percent difference between synch speed and actual speed = slip IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

. P.E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Rotor Voltage (E2) and frequency (f2) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

. P.E.IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. Effects of a 10% variation on a typical design B induction motor at full load shown below. . P.Induction motors are designed to operate successfully with voltage variations of ±10%.

E. . P.Unbalanced voltage -> derate of motor capability Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Estimate of motor current IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .E.

Pe – Active stator power input Pjs – I2R loss in stator Pf – Iron loss in stator Pr – active power supplied to rotor Pjr – I2R loss in rotor Pm – Mechanical power of rotor Pv – windage / friction losses PL – power to load IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Efficiency = Pout to Pin IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

P.E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Rotor loss and mechanical power relation to slip IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

E. P. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Mechanical torque developed by shaft IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

. P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

. P.E.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Effect of rotor resistance IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Starting Torque increased. starting current reduced. breakdown torque not effected (to a point) Start -> high resistance. slip increased.E. P. Run -> low resistance IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Wound Rotor Characteristics IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

E. P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Three phase winding design – Salient pole design vs lap winding design Phase groups = #poles X #phases (X #windings) Increase # of coils per group -> better starting torque & less noise #slots = # coils Pole pitch = # coils / # poles Coil Pitch = width of coil (typical 80%-100% pole pitch) 120O electrical separation between phases IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines May be wye or delta connection Convert from measured resistance to per winding resistance RA1-B1 = 2*Rwinding RA1-B1 = (2/3)*Rwinding IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.E.

E. P. .Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Pole Pitch vs Coil Pitch IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

.E. P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

.E. P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Linear Induction Motor – Linear speed – depends on frequency & pole pitch Typically 2 stator sides to one rotor or alternately stator moving and rotor stationary IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Linear Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E. P.

Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Linear Induction Motor Properties IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.E.

.E. P = v*F IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Horizontal Force (Thrust) developed based on Work = F * d. P.

P.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Doubly-fed wound rotor motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

.Chapter 13 – Three Phase Induction Machines Supersynchronous Rotor abc – stator acb Subsynchronous Rotor abc – stator abc IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.

Subsynchronous Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .E.

P. .E.Supersynchronous Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

E. P. .Subsynchronous Generator IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Supersynchronous Generator IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .E.

Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines NEMA design starting characteristics Shallow bars = higher resistance Deep bars reduced resistance Starting – current mostly in shallow bar Running – current shared and deep bar resistance low IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. . P.

E. .Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines Two Speed Motor designs – 1. Simulated or “consequent” pole generation Coil pitch only 50% of pole pitch. Multiple windings with multiple poles 2. P. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

3. P.Series connection for 4 pole. 3. . 2. LS – pwr -> 4. 2. 5. 450 RPM (60hz) HS – pwr -> 1.E. 6 (1. neutral) Constant power / constant torque / variable torque config Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. 900 RPM (60hz) Parallel connection for 8 pole.

P.Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines Between NL and FL – torque curve linear s = slip T = torque R = rotor resistance E = stator voltage k = constant due to rotor construction IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

LRT. FLT Rule 1 true if no load on motor during start – If load on motor during accel.E. BDT. FLA.Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines Starting an induction motor – LRA vs. . Heat dissipated in rotor greater than rule 1. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. PUT.

E. P. .Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines Induction Generating region – n > ns – Torque changes direction -> power is toque X speed -> motor is now generator (asynchronous generator) Power proportional Torque X Speed VAR required from system to provide energy for magnetic field generation IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.E.Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines Induction motor in generating mode – Motor is active power source but still reactive power sink IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

Chapter 14 – Selection & Application of 3 Phase Induction Machines

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Induction Braking, Motoring, Generating
**

Braking Region Motoring Region Regenerating Region

+Ve Torque

Voltage

Motoring

Current

-Ve Torque

Regenerating

Synchronous Speed (Rotating Field Speed)

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor
**

Similar to Transformer – circuit similar Wye connection – 1:1 transformer Motor magnetizing component NOT negligible 2HP, shift magnetizing circuit to source side Frequency in rotor circuit = s*f

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor
**

Active Power – (Independent of magnetizing ckt)

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

E. .Reactive Power - Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

.E.Apparent Power - Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

.Line Current - Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.

.Power to Rotor (includes shaft power + rotor loss) – – (Independent of magnetizing ckt) Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.

P.Rotor I2R losses – (Independent of magnetizing ckt) Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E.

.E.Mechanical Power (Shaft Power) – (Independent of magnetizing ckt) Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

.Torque – (Independent of magnetizing ckt) Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.

.E. P.Efficiency - Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.E. .Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor No Load Test Arrangement IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

. P.Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor No Load Test to determine magnetizing circuit – I1 small compared to Io – only magnetizing branch applies IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

.E.Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor Following calculations apply Note: three phase power Windage. Iron loss = IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. Friction.

E. . P.Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

E. .Chapter 15 – Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor Locked Rotor – Reduced voltage Calculate: IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Stationary Field generator < 5kva stationary field – rotating armature slip ring connection to armature Rotating Field generator (alternator) > 5kva stationary armature – rotating field slip ring connection to field IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators DC generator for field generation of Synchronous Generator IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

E.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators One complete cycle every time pole pair passed -> Frequency generated is: IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.

.E. Max term voltage typically 25kv. P. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. in delta they add and cause circulating current.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Stator Features: Identical to 3 phase motor Stacked laminations Always connected in wye for following reasons: Voltage per coil 58% line voltage Third harmonic voltages cancel (same in each phase).

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Rotor Features: High speed slotted cylindrical forging Smaller diameter – centrifugal forces Longer to get air gap area needed for power Retaining ring – insulated Low speed typically salient pole Larger diameter – lower speed – more poles Shorter due to more air gap area per foot length Coils in series (mica strip insulation) Squirrel cage in pole faces (damper winding) for transient dampening IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

5% to 2% machine rating Two functions 1. provided by DC generator on same shaft 2. Provided by PMG same shaft via separate sourced solid state rectifier to alternator on shaft 2.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Field Excitation . IEEE EMD Tom . Provided by MG set separately driven 3. P. provide reactive power to system Slip ring and Brush exciter 1.typically . Provided by separate sourced solid state rectifier Brushless exciter 1. maintain ac line voltage 2. Provided by external source via solid state rectifier to Seminar alternator on shaft. Blair.E.

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Brushless exciter – Less maintenance Ic controls field current Frequency > main frequency IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

P.E. .Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Size of synchronous generators: Larger size -> higher efficiency Power per KG greater (more power per $) Cooling of large machines challenge Indirectly cooled winding Gas intercooled winding Water cooled winding IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Strand insulation – reduce eddy current in conductor

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Robel Transposition – equalize magnetic reactance of each conductor

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Connection to liquid cooling system.

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Simplified SLE circuit for Synchronous Generator

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

P.E. This is value of (Ixn) Short Circuit test – rated speed and shorted terminals. excitation raised back to Ixn. excitation raised to meet rated V (En). . and armature current measured (value of Isc) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Synchronous Reactance Measurement of Xs Open circuit test – rated speed and open terminals.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) – Ratio of Ix1 to Ix2, where Ix1 is field current to produce nominal open circuit voltage and Ix2 is field current to produce nominal armature current on short circuited terminals (steady state) Xs (pu) = (Ix2 / Ix1) = 1/SCR

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Generator supplying lagging load - Lagging PF, I leads E, E(Xs) leads I by 90 degrees, Eo = E + Ex, therefore Eo > E, Angle between E and Eo is power angle (d)

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Generator supplying leading load - Leading PF, I lags E, E(Xs) leads I by 90 degrees, Eo = E + Ex, therefore Eo < E, Angle between E and Eo is power angle (d) Note same power angle as before.

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

**Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators
**

Generator Synchronization: 1. Generator Frequency = System Frequency (preferred slightly faster) WHY? 2. Generator Voltage Magnitude = System Voltage Magnitude (preferred slightly higher) WHY? 3. Generator Voltage Phase Angle = System Voltage Phase Angle (breaker closing time added to calculation) 4. Generator Phase sequence = System Phase Sequence

IEEE EMD Seminar

Tom Blair, P.E.

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Infinite Bus Characteristics: 1. Adjusting excitation adjusts Eo – controls VAR flow. P. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. 2. .E. Adjusting mechanical torque adjusts power angle d – control watts flow.

P.E.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Overexcited System looks like Inductive Load – I lags E Ex in phase with E E + Ex = Eo Var transfer to system IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

. P.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Under excited System looks like Capacitive Load – I leads E Ex 180O out of phase with E E + Ex = Eo Var transfer to generator IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

E. NOTE: even though E and Eo have same magnitude (implying no VAR transfer) power is still transferred due to power angle d IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P. Eo advances ahead of E. increased power angle d.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Increasing Torque.

E. P. .Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Rotor Position – no load to full load – Torque by prime mover advances rotor position IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P. a = d ) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Mechanical angle of rotor pole to stator pole related to power angle by: (Note for 2 pole generator.E. .

P.pdf IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.thomasblairpe.E. .Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators For Proof of equation.com/EMD/PPE_PWR_XFER. see web site. http://www.

. P. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Rated power typically around 30O – Power angle > 90O cause pole slip and out of synch condition. Note: curve typical for smooth cylindrical machine – curve modified for salient pole machine.E.

E. P.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators 2 pole machines oscillate at 2X line frequency – core mounting absorbs vibration IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

.E. P.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Cylindrical Rotor Construction IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Bore Copper and terminal stud connector for DC field circuit IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E. P.

P. .E.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators Generator Capability Curve IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

E.Chapter 16 – Synchronous Generators V-Curve – Apparent power to Field current for various power loading Question – which side is generator VAR source / VAR sink? IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.

.E.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Construction similar to Synchronous Generator Stator slotted wedges Rotor Salient Poles – damper winding imbedded in pole face IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

E.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Rotor poles & stator poles always same IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .

amortisseur winding sees no slip -> no voltage induced in winding IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Starting Synchronous motor – amortisseur winding Short field winding during start . .Limit induced voltage on field winding & improve starting torque Also reduced voltage start or pony motor start VFD also used for starting very large synchronous motor (and combustion turbine generators) Pull in torque – Applying DC to field generates field – pulls rotor into synch with stator field (pull in torque) Detection of position of rotor pole position important When in synch.E. P.

Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Power & Torque - IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. . P.

. P.E.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Power & Torque – since P is sin function. T is sin function IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E.

a =d IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.E.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Relationship between power angle d and mechanical angle a between stator and rotor pole centers Same as Generator – also note for 2 pole machine.

. concentration of flux between rotor and stator poles changes. P. This variation in flux leads to variation in torque (known as reluctance torque) Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.Reluctance torque for salient pole machine – As power angle d increases.

.E. P.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Resultant Torque 1 – Reluctance Torque 2 – Cylindrical Torque 3 – Resultant Torque PEAK – 70O IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Apply mechanical break IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Break by maintain full CD excitation with Armature connected to resistor bank (dynamic braking) 4.Chapter 17 – Synchronous Motors Stopping Synchronous Motor – Following methods: 1.E. Coasting (may take time to come to rest) 2. Break by maintain full DC excitation with Armature short circuit (dynamic braking) 3. . P.

139 .Week 10 Tom Blair. P.E.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Resistive Battery Charger I2R losses in resistor I = E43/R EMD .

Week 10 Tom Blair. 140 .E. P.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Inductive Battery Charger Stored Energy example Imax = A(+)/L EMD .

E. 141 .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Single Phase Bridge Rectifier 2 pulse rectifier Fripple = #pulse*fline = 2 * fline Ripple = 2*f(line) Ripplep-p = Epeak EMD . P.Week 10 Tom Blair.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Filters – L – constant current Series w/ load Line current square wave C – constant voltage Parallel w/ load Line current spike EMD .E. 142 .Week 10 Tom Blair. P.

E.414 Peak to Peak 1.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics 3 Phase. P.Week 10 Tom Blair.225 < Ed < 1.225 = 0.189 E Fripple = Fline * Pulse # Fripple = Fline * 6 EMD .414 – 1. 143 . 6 pulse rectifier – 1.

PIV = Epeak Conduction 360O / #pulse = 360O/6 = 60O EMD .E.Week 10 Tom Blair. 144 .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Ripple . P.

145 .Week 10 Tom Blair. P.E.Current / Voltage relationships for various configurations: EMD .

Anode to cathode current remain positive EMD . P.E. 146 .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Solid state switch – point of conduction controlled a.Week 10 Tom Blair. Anode positive b. Gate current injected c.

**Chapter 21 – Power Electronics
**

!!!SAFETY!!! SCR output = input voltage

EMD - Week 10

Tom Blair, P.E.

147

**Chapter 21 – Power Electronics
**

Natural commutation vs forced commutation Stop commutation by: 1. Reduce dc supply voltage to zero 2. Open load circuit via switch 3. Force anode current to zero

EMD - Week 11

Tom Blair, P.E.

148

**Chapter 21 – Power Electronics
**

Rectifier – active load (load has energy source) Peak current = amp*seconds / inductance Apparent and real power flow to load

EMD - Week 11

Tom Blair, P.E.

149

Line commutated inverter – active load (load has energy source, note polarity) Peak current = amp*seconds / inductance Apparent power to load, real power to source DC to AC conversion

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics

EMD - Week 11

Tom Blair, P.E.

150

Due to polarity of Ed.Line Commutated Inverter – DC to AC real power conversion Forced Commutated – commutation by current reversal within power bridge Line Commutated – Commutation current provided by line. Power flows to source.Week 11 Tom Blair. P.E. 151 . Source side voltage must be present to provide needed VAR Chapter 21 – Power Electronics EMD .

Week 11 Tom Blair.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics AC static switch – back to back SCRs Reactive power draw Phase angle. zero fired. on/off EMD .E. 152 . P.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics 3 Phase. 6 pulse rectifier – to active load Ed = 1.35 * E * cos a Ed > Eo for current flow. Ed < Eo zero current flow Excel Spreadsheet showing calculation EMD .Week 11 Tom Blair. P.E. 153 .

E. P. reduced Ed Conduction angle still 60O Each thyristor still conducts for 120O EMD .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Delayed trigger – rectifier mode Increased delay angle.Week 11 Tom Blair. 154 .

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Conduction angles of 45O and 75O EMD . 155 . P.E.Week 11 Tom Blair.

P. 156 .E.Week 11 Tom Blair.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Delayed Trigger – Inverter Mode Note Polarity of Eo and Ed EMD .

E. zero current flow Power flow to source EMD .Week 11 Tom Blair. 157 . P. 90O < a < 180O Eo > Ed current flow.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Inverter mode. Ed > Eo.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics EMD . P.E.Week 11 Tom Blair. 158 .

P.Week 11 Tom Blair.E. 159 .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Current flow: I = S(2/3) Id = EMD .

P.E.Week 11 Tom Blair. 160 .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Reactive Power draw of bridge dependant on Real Power draw and delay angle EMD .

.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Rapid Switching – Where D = Ta/T IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Rapid Switching – DC current I0 -> Source current Is -> Where D = Ta/T IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E. P.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Es * Is = Eo * Io. . P. but Is = Io * D -> IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Ro = Eo / Io = Es * D2 / Is -> IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E.

E. if EL<Eo. P. . EL>Eo. S2 = 1-D = Tb/T If. controlled by D IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P flow to Eo (boost).Chapter 21 – Power Electronics 2 quadrant DC to DC converter S1 = D = Ta/T. P flow to EL (buck).

E. Eo) Q1 & Q4 operate in pair for Ta/T = D. unidirectional EH. Q2 & Q3 operate in pair for Tb/T = 1-D When D = 0. Eo (2 quad converter. Ell = Eh When D = 0. Ell = -Eh IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.5. .Chapter 21 – Power Electronics 4 quadrant DC to DC converter – bidirectional EH. P. Ell = 0 (note there is still ac component) When D = 1.

IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Switching Losses – Four distinct operations: 1. P. On-state time T2 – Current flowing. Off-state time T4 – Current zero. Voltage increases 4. Vt 2-3 VDC 3. Voltage high. voltage decreases 2. .E. Turn-on time T1 – Current increases. Turn-off time T3 – Current decreases.

Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Snubber – During turnoff – controls dv/dt across device IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. . P.

P.E. .9 * Eh IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics DC to AC rectangular converter E = 0.

.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics DC to AC converter with PWM Adjust D waveform.E. adjust Ell Magnitude and waveform – fc must be 10 times > f out IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

E. . fiberoptic converters Transmit real time waveform via FO IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Triangular generation of PWM waveform When V>El – off When V<El – on NOTE: Technology has application past power – example. P.

. DC to AC converter 3 single phase converter shifted 120O Ean. Em = E*S2.E.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics 3 phase. Ecn = E/S3. Ebn. P. -> Em = E*S6 IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Q1 closed when Eay>Efc Q3 closed when Eby>Efc Q5 closed when Ecy>Efc Q2 closed when Eay<Efc Q4 closed when Eby<Efc Q6 closed when Ecy<Efc IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

P.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

. P.Chapter 21 – Power Electronics Converter as Universal Generator Fast response.E. Small impedance No isolation without transformer RLC to filter out fc C1 to filter DC bus IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors First Quadrant – speed control IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

motor coast to lower speed till Id /= 0 Ripple voltage large. Id = o. No armature resistors needed (no losses) 2. P. Power loss reduced. . increasing Id 1. PF poor during start period A typically 15O at full conduction Ed > Eo by Id*Ra To lower speed.E. but L gives smooth Id Motor coast to stop (no breaking) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. 4. a decreased to increase armature Vdc. Current limit prevent over current. a increased. improved efficiency 3.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Speed varied by changing armature voltage a initially 90O. switch closed.

. P.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Two quadrant control via field reversal – Dynamic Brake – resistor across armature Regenerative brake – generate power back to line Procedure follows: IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors 1. P.E. Reverse If (Delayed) 3. Once speed lowered. Delay gate pulse again by 180O (cause Ed to be positive 5. Reverse back If (Delay) 6. Delay gate pulse by 180O (cause Ed to be neg) 2. Increase a so |Ed| > |Eo| IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Reduce a so |Ed| < |Eo| 4. .

P.E. Delay gate pulse again by 180O (cause Ed to be positive Reverse back Eo to reverse back Io Increase a so |Ed| > |Eo| IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Two quadrant control via armature reversal (single converter) – Quicker response – La << Lf Delay gate pulse by 180O (cause Ed to be neg) Reverse Eo to reverse Io Reduce a so |Ed| < |Eo| Once speed lowered.

E. P. .Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Two Quadrant (1&2) control – reversing with same torque direction Raise – Quadrant 1 – motoring – 0O<a<90O IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Two Quadrant (1&2) control – reversing with same torque direction – Eo reverses Lower – Quadrant 2 – Braking – 90O<a<180O IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E. .

. P.E.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Converter 1 – Rectifier Mode Converter 2 – Inverter Mode Converter 1 – Inverter Mode Converter 2 – Rectifier Mode IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

E. P.Four Quadrant Drive – Utilizing 2 converter system IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

. P. small values of Ed contain negative portions of Ed IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors 6 pulse converter with freewheeling diode – Without diode.

Also. P. . reactive current large.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Due to lag. I line 120O regardless of a IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Placing diode prevents Ed from being negative IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. .

increased Id – increase a angle for same Id. . note I line no longer 120O IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors For same a. P.E.

Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors With Freewheeling diode.) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .eqn only apply for reduced voltage ( a > 60O) where there is neg comp of Ed. calculation of Ed and I become – (note. P.E.

P.E. .Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Half Bridge Converter – 3 diode/3 SCR IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

.E. P.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Note – 3 pulse rectifier – again I line < 120O IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Half Bridge Converter – IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E.

Chapter 22 – Control of DC Motors Converter A – 3phase. 3 pulse half bridge IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. P. . 6 pulse w/ FW diode Converter C – 3phase. 6 pulse Converter B – 3phase.

Rectifier / Inverter Systems with Self Commutation 5. AC motors controlled with Voltage and Frequency Types of AC drives – 1. Static Voltage Changers 3.E. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Where DC motors controlled by controlling Voltage and Current. . Rectifier / Inverter Systems with Line Commutation 4. Static Frequency Changers 2. PWM Systems IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

org/standards IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P. .ieee.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors VFD standards – NEMA “Application Guide For AC Adjustable Speed Drive Systems” Available Free at: http://www.E.nema.org/ IEEE Std 958 “Guide for Application of AC Adjustable-Speed Drives for Electric Power Generating Stations” IEEE Std 1566 “Standard for Performance of Adjustable Speed AC Drives Rated 375 kW and Larger “ Available at: http://www.

P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors IEEE Std 1566 – sample datasheet (purchaser) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E. .

. P.E.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors IEEE Std 1566 – sample datasheet (Vendor) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

E. .convert fline to fload IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Static Frequency Changer . P.

Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Static Voltage Controller – Vary AC voltage to motor to control torque / speed (also used to softstart) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P.E.

. Used on Synchronous and Wound Rotor Motors. (why not induction machines?) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Rectifier uses Line to commutate. Inverter uses Motor to commutate (LCI). P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Rectifier / Inverter w/ line commutation – AC to DC to AC conversion.E.

Rectifier uses self commutation. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. Used on squirrel cage induction motors that can not provide commutation energy.E. P. .Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Rectifier / Inverter w/ self commutation – AC to DC to AC conversion.

IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors PWM system – AC to DC to AC conversion. Used on induction motors. P.E. .

Speed controlled by Ia or If.E.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Synchronous motor current source drive – Operate like brushless DC motor (control Ia & If) Es Q speed & If. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . P. Gate controlled by rotor position.

Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Converter 2 in inverting mode - Converter 1 in rectifying mode - IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.E. .

Converter 2 rect. . inverting E1 and E2 (Idc same direction) IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Trigged to provide leading PF – provide var for reactive power needed by converter 2 – Regen brake by Converter 1 invert.E.

P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Torque speed curve for variable speed If V/F constant. .E. flux constant. peak torque same IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Static voltage controller – adjust voltage (not freq) T Q V2 Greater slip. P. Increased rotor heating Small motor only IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.E.

.E.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Solidstate voltage reduction Adjusting delay angle – Reduced Vac to motor Vrms not linear to angle IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

E. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. . 5 basic type Ramp down vs DC injection.E. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Solidstate softstart – reduce mechanical shock. reduced peak start current.

.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Terminology Soft start Reduced Voltage Starter (RVS) Solid State Reduced Voltage Starter (SSRVS) Purpose of softstart 1.E. P. Reduce peak torque during start. Reduce the inrush current during start 2. Brief review of motor theory for how soft start effects these parameters IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Ensure sufficient motor available torque to start the motor.E. Acceleration Time (Tacc) is defined as: Average Acceleration Torque (Avg Acc Trq) is defined as: This definition does not account for load: IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .

Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors ATL start – constant torque load IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. .E. P.

.E.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors RVS (Limit) – constant torque load IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.

API 841 recommends Tmotor >1. Ensure sufficient motor accelerating torque exists throughout acceleration curve. .1*Tload throughout the speed range.E. IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Trequired = Tmotor + Tload Evaluate motor and load torque curves.

.E. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors > 2300V IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.

transmission issues. motor heating IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair. actively stop loads Damp applications. reduce torque (electronic shear pin) Weak distribution lines. limit voltage dip during start Electronic braking. .E. prevent water hammer Mech. P.Chapter 23 – Control of AC Motors Applications for reduced voltage start Pump Applications.

.E.org IEEE EMD Seminar Tom Blair.Conclusion Tour of Motor Shop 3PM to 5PM. Questions? Tom Blair Office: 813-228-4407 Email: tom_blair@ieee. P.

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