Lecture 1

Dr Muhammad Adil Khattak

Stress Transformation

Plane Stress Stress Transformation in Plane Stress Principal Stresses & Maximum Shear Stress

Stress Analysis - Review
1. 2. 3.

Determine critical point Solve for internal forces at that point (or reduce to cantilever) Solve for stresses at that point


Add like stresses, i.e.: 

Chapter 8

Wtotal = W1 + W2 + W3 + Xtotal = X1 + X2 + X3 +



5. 6.

Summarize stresses at that point on a stress element. Chapter 9 May be necessary to use Stress Transformation or Mohr s circle to get max stresses!

Recall from Chapter 8, already did steps 1 ± 5:
Drill Bit Drill Bit Isolator ( Thrust Load = 8,000 to 10,000 lb Bending Load= 125 lbs)= K*H Drill Rod Torsion Load= 300 lb-ft

Chuck Isolator


Now What???? Solve for stress at a point using standard Equations. Summarize these stresses on an initial stress element or aligned stress element.

step 6

Must find MAXIMUM stresses at that point, may be different then the applied stresses can occur at some other orientation plane or angle.

Compare max stresses to material allowables to determine: Is it safe, will it fail???


We have learned 

Axially In Torsion In bending

These stresses act on cross sections of the members.  Larger stresses can occur on inclined sections. 

Concrete Beam subject to Bending and Shear

Ductile material failed in Axial loading

Brittle Material failed in Axial Loading

Ductile Material failed in Torsion

Brittle Material failed in Torsion

State of stresses varies in the body

6 Stress Components

Plane Stress  

Plane Stress The state of stress when we analyzed bars in tension and compression, shafts in torsion, and beams in bending. Consider a 3 dimensional stress element Material is in plane stress in the xy plane  

Only the x and y faces of the element are subjected to stresses All stresses act parallel to the x and y axis

Plane Stress 

Normal stress 


subscript identifies the face on which the stress acts Tension positive compression negative 

Sign Convention 

Plane Stress 

Shear Stress - X xy 

Two subscripts
First denotes the face on which the stress acts  Second gives the direction on that face 

Plane Stress 

A 2-dimensional view can depict the relevant stress information, fig. 9.1c

Sign convention
A. Given Plane Stress State: B. What are new stresses at element rotation of U??:

Note, positive stress directions shown.

Note, positive angle (ccw) shown.

Stresses on Inclined Planes 

First we know Wx, Wy, and Xxy, Consider a new stress element  

Located at the same point in the material as the original element, but is rotated about the z axis x and y axis rotated through an angle U

Stresses on Inclined Planes 

The normal and shear stresses acting on they new element are:

W x ' , W y ' ,X x ' y '

Using the same subscript designations and sign conventions described.  Remembering equilibrium, we know that: X !X 

x' y'

y ' x'

Stresses on Inclined Planes  

The stresses in the x y plane can be expressed in terms of the stresses on the xy element by using equilibrium. Consider a wedge shaped element 

Inclined face same as the x face of inclined element.

Stresses on Inclined Planes 

Construct a FBD showing all the forces acting on the faces 

The sectioned face is (A.  

Then the normal and shear forces can be represented on the FBD. Summing forces in the x and y directions and remembering trig identities, we get:

W x' !

W x W y 2 

W x W y 2

cos 2U  X xy sin 2U


§ FY ' ! 0

W x W y 2 sin 2U  X xy cos 2U

X x' y ' ! 

Substitute U ! U  90 for U in equation 9.1
W y' ! W x W y 2  W x W y 2 cos 2U  X xy sin 2U


Stresses on Inclined Planes 

These are called the transformation equations for plane stress.  

They transfer the stress component form one set of axes to another. The state of stress remains the same. 

Based only on equilibrium, do not depend on material properties or geometry 

There are Strain Transformation equations that are based solely on the geometry of deformation.

Mohr s Circle for Plane Stress
The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in a graphical format known as Mohr s circle.  This representation is useful in visualizing the relationships between normal and shear stresses acting on various inclined planes at a point in a stressed body. 

Mohr s Circle Rules

Construction of Mohr s circle 

1. Determine the point on the body in which the principal stresses are to be determined. 2. Treating the load cases independently and calculated the stresses for the point chosen. 3. Choose a set of x-y reference axes and draw a square element centered on the axes. 4. Identify the stresses x, y, and xy = yx and list them with the proper sign. 5. Draw a set of - coordinate axes with being positive to the right and being positive in the upward direction. Choose an appropriate scale for the each axis. 6. Using the rules on the previous page, plot the stresses on the x face of the element in this coordinate system (point V). Repeat the process for the y face (point H). 7. Draw a line between the two point V and H. The point where this line crosses the axis establishes the center of the circle. 8. Draw the complete circle. 9. The line from the center of the circle to point V identifies the x axis or reference axis for angle measurements (i.e. = 0). Note: The angle between the reference axis and the axis is equal to 2 p.

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