# Submitted by – ABHISHEK RANJAN Reg No.

- 080921316

Details of the organisation: Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Udupi District, Karnataka – 576104

Name of Guide: Dr. V.I.George, Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Email id: vig_rect@yahoo.com Contact No.: 9448548101

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INTRODUCTION Need for project Objective LITERATURE SURVEY Identification of dominant state Reduced order Model survey RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Identification of dominant states of DTLS Reduced order model schemes of DTLS

which provides a good approximation to the system.INTRODUCTION  In the higher order systems.simulation and designing of a controller is a complex problem. .Thus we go for suitable reduced order model of original system.  The preliminary design and optimization of complex systems can often be accomplished with greater ease if a reduced order model is derived.

and the natural frequency. Reduced Computational Burden Reduced Hardware Complexity   .the damping ratio. Quick And Easy Understanding Of The System A lower oder model reflects the characteristics of the original system such as the time constant.

.Making Feasible Designs: Reduced order models may be effectively used in control applications like •Model reference adaptive control schemes •Hierarchial control schemes •Suboptimal control •Decentralised controllers  The results studied for a simple low-order model can be easily generalized to other comparable systems. To Improve the Methodology of Computer Aided Control System Design.

  To Identify the Dominant States of DTLS To Obtain Reduced Order Models of DTLS .

Mahapatra . The dominant modes are used to indicate which states should be retained in a reduced order model. Lastman and Aldeen have proposed for identifying dominant modes of a linear system . Davison.   The reduced order model for linear system keeps only the dominant state of the given linear plant.

Aldeen [4] has presented the combined participation measure for effective identification of the dominant and nondominant modes of the linear system The concept of Aldeen [4] has been modified and extended for selecting the state variables that significantly participate in the construction of dominant modes of DTLS .

 Davison. The model order reduction proposed here for DTLS is a development of Aldeen method which deals with continuous time linear systems.  . Lastman . Johnson and Aldeen have attempted to derive a reduce order model based on eigen value concept.

z(k+1) = M-1 AMz(k) + M-1 Bu(k) y(k) = CMz(k) . Consider a DTLS described by the following equation: x(k+1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) y(k) = Cx(k) Consider the modal transformations X(k) = Mz(k)  Normalization transformations on the standard state space equations obtains.

consisting of the dominant (slow) and nondominant(fast) modes of A.where λ=M -1AM= λ1 0 0 λ2 γ=M -1B=[γ1 γ2]T ψ=CM = [ψ1 ψ2] where λ1 and λ2 are diagonal matrices. .

The higher the value of Rk.The dominance measure of the kth eigen value in the ith state is determined as Dik = Mik/(1-λk)*Ʃλkj The relative dominance of the kth eigen value in the ith state is determined as Pik = (Dik/Rk)*100 Rk = ∑ Dki is the model dominance of each eigen value in all the states. more dominant is the eigen value. .

we identify the dominant states of the system.   An nth order linear discrete time system can be modelled by a state equation of the form X1(k+1) = A x1(k) + B u(k) Y(k) = C x1(k) As shown earlier. Thus the equations reduce to the following Z1(k+1) = λ1 z1(k) + γ1(k) Z2(k+1) = λ2 z2(k) + γ2(k) Y(k) = ψ1 z1(k) + ψ2 z2(k) .

z2(k+1) = z2(k) (A2) The matrix I-λ2 is invertible.e. Z2(k) = λ2 z2(k) + γ2u(k) i.To carry out the reduction process. So for large values of k.following assumptions are made : (A1) As k tends to infinity. z2(k) = (I-λ2)-1 γ2 u(k) .

we have Z(k) = M-1 x(k) = Q x(k) Z1 (k+1) = Q x1(k) Z2 (k+1) x2(k) = Q11 Q12 Q21 Q22 x1(k) x2(k) Using Z2(k) = Q21 x1(k) + Q22 x2(k) =(I-λ2)-1 γ2 u(k) The matrix Q22 is invertible.Q22-1 Q21 x1(k) + Q22-1(I-λ2)-1 γ2 u(k) .By the linear change of coordinates. The equation may be simplified as X2(k) = .

A12 Q22-1 Q21 Br = B1 + A12 Q22-1(I-λ2)-1 γ2 Cr = C1 – C2 Q22-1 Q21 Dr = C2 Q22-1 (I-λ2)-1 γ2 . the reduced order model of the given linear system is X1(k+1) = Ar x1(k) + Br u(k) Y(k) = Cr x1(k) + Dr u(k) Where Ar = A11.

Let the following balanced transformation x(k) = T xb(k) be applied to the system. C) be an th order stable system that is both controllable and observable.  Let (A. B. The internally balance system is obtained as Xb(k+1) = Ab xb(k) + Bb u(k) Y(k) = Cb xb(k) . where xb(k) is an n-dimensional balanced state vector.

Ab12 Q22-1 Q21 Brb =B b1 + A12 Q22-1(I-λ2)-1 γ2 Crb = Cb1 – Cb2 Q22-1 Q21 Drb = Cb2 Q22-1 (I-λ2)-1 γ2 . we get reduced order model as Xb1(k+1) = Arb xb1(k) + Br bu(k) Y(k) = Cr xb1 (k) + Dr bu(k) Where Arb = Ab11. Applying proposed scheme 1.

9607 0.9312 -0.0021 0.H = 60.0558 0. The jet model during cruise flight at MACH =0.7923 0.0264 0.1947 0.0558 -0.000 feet is A= 0.2919 0.8 and height.1988 C= 1 0 0 0 0100 D= 0 0 0 0 .1947 0.2506 0.1988 0.1683 -0.9607 B= 0.1082 0.0885 0.1683 0.0197 0.0264 -0.0264 -0.1837 0.1683 -0.1683 -0.

9607+0.8186 Λ4=0.9048 Here λ1 and λ2 are the most dominant state of the system. .1947i Λ3=0.1947i Λ2=0.Λ1 =0.9607 -0.

9606 -0.1660 Y(k) = 1 0 x1 (k) 0 1 . X1(k+1) =0.2252 u(k) 0.1947 x1(k)+ 0.0867 -0.1279 0.9608 -0.1948 0.Using the model reduction schemes the reduced order model derived for given DTLS as.

5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 Time (seconds) 50 100 150 200 250 300 .5 1 0.5 To: Out(1) Amplitude To: Out(2) 1 0.Step Response From: In(1) 2.5 0 -0.5 0 -0.5 reduced 2 original From: In(2) 1.5 2 1.

3679 B= -0.896 .0047 -0.0826 0.1 sec.The discrete time model of voltage regulator at sampling time interval of 0.0084 0.4290 0 0.2398 0 0 -0.0059 0. The voltage regulator matrices are given by A = 0.1543 3.5092 10.9512 0 0 0 -0.9802 0 0 0 0 -0.2609 6.0483 0.2066 0.9743 1.5212 0.0026 0.0821 1.5331 1.

0763 0 0. Ab = 0.0005 -0.C = [1 0 0 0 0] D= 0 So we calculate the balanced form of A.0211 0.0018 0.9916 -0.0005 0 0.0001 0.0369 -0.0036 -0.C ad D.4824 0.1615 0.0018 0.0036 -0.0054 -0.1620 -0.0001 0.0211 0.0054 -0.1615 0.0369 0.0426 .B.0763 0.9426 0.

0798 -2.9512 Λ3=0.Bb = [2.0686 -0.1858 0.6804 -0.0012]T Cb= [-2.0821 .3679 Λ4=0.6804 -0.9802 Λ2 = 0.0686 0.1858 -0.0012] Db = 0 The eigen values of the system is given by :Λ1 = 0.2398 Λ5=0.0798 -2.

0213 0.2342] u(k) . Thus the proposed reduced order model will be.0213 x1(k) + 2.0756 -2. X1(k+1) = 0.1986 Y(k) = [-2.0780 u(k) 0.2121] x1(k) + [ -0.9916 -0.Clearly λ1 and λ2 are the most dominant state of the system.9412 -2.

Step Response 50 reduced 0 original -50 -100 -150 Amplitude -200 -250 -300 -350 -400 -450 0 50 100 150 Time (seconds) 200 250 300 .

 The proposed scheme 1 reduction’s step response finally converges to the original system after some interval of time.though scheme 2 yields a better result.Hence both the schemes give satisfactory reduction technique.while the proposed scheme 2’s reduction step response is almost similar to the original system. .

P.131.  Mahapatra.93–101.pp.B. J.REFERENCES Davison.  Aldeen. 53.G. (1996) A method for simplifying linear dynamic systems. (1991) Intercation modelling approach to distributed control with application to interconnected dynamical systems.J. AC-22.Sinha.pp. Vol.IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control.  . and Rozsa.677-678  Lastman. – Control Theory. (1977) A note on selecting a low-order system by Davison’s model simplification technique.G.N. (1984) On the selection of states to retained be in a reduced order model. International journal of control. pp. IEEE Transaction on Automatic control.K.IEE Proc. AC11. pp. E.1035-1054.Vol.M.15–24.

Vol.IEEE Transactions on Automatic control.Vol.E and Williamson.International journal of control.H.5.T.pp.53.AC-17.IEEE Trans on Automatic Control.No.M and Trinh H.IEE Proc. 111-113 Sreeram. (1991).V and Haddad.P. (1975) Controallbility and Time-optimal control of systems with fast and slow modes.A. Kokotovic. Aldeen.1.301-308.Vol.Vol. 129-144.D (1972) Design of loworder observers for linear feedback control laws.pp 137-144 . pp.Fortman. V and Agathoklis P. AC-20. pp. (1991) Model reduction of Linear Discrete System via weighted Impulse Grammians.No.141 .-Control theory. Observing a subset of states of linear systems.

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