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What is development? -Continuities and changes in the individual that happen between conception and death
•Developmentalists- any professional who seeks to understand the process of development
What influences our development?
• Nature (maturation)
– Aging Process – Our genetic make-up
• Nurture (learning)
– Observation and interactions with our parents and teachers and others in our environment – Our experiences
• Many developmental changes are due to the interaction between both nature and nurture.
Overview of Periods of the Life Span Period of life Prenatal Period Infancy & toddler hood Preschool period Approximate age range Conception to birth First 2 years of life 2-6 years of life Middle childhood Adolescence Young adulthood Middle age Old age ~6-12 or onset of puberty ~12-20 or reach independence 20-40 years of age 40-65 years of age 65+ years .
to delineate how human beings change over time both normatively and ideographically – Normative Development: common developmental patterns – Ideographic Development: individual variations . Description.Developmentalists pursue 3 goals. 1.
Optimize development. Explain-what they observe to determine why: • Individuals develop as they typically do • Why there are individual differences in development 3.Developmentalists goals continued 2.by applying what they have observed in order to help individuals develop in a positive direction .
and emotional-are interrelated and effect each other . social.Characteristics of development • A continual & Cumulative Process – The one constant is change – The changes that transpire at each major phase of life may affect future development • Holistic Process – Changes in one aspect of developmentwhether it is physical. mental.
Characteristics of development Cont’d • Plasticity – The ability to change as a result of positive and negative life experiences • Historical & Cultural – Development is influenced by both societal changes and cultural characteristics .
Historical Perspectives in Development • Childhood in premodern times – Children had few rights – Children's lives were not always valued • Toward modern-day views of childhood – Parents were discouraged from abusing their children – Parents were encouraged to treat their children with warmth and affection .
– Children are seen as passive to societal influences • Innate Purity-children are born with a sense of right and wrong that is often corrupted by society (Jean Jacques Rousseau) – Children are seen as active .Early childhood philosophies • Original Sin-children are inherently selfish egoists who must be restrained by society (Thomas Hobbes).
Early childhood philosophies cont’d • Tabula rasa (blank slate).children are: – Neither inherently good or bad – Their development is solely due to worldly experiences (John Locke) – seen as passive to societal influences .
Children as subjects: • Baby biographies– Investigators from the late 19th century observed their own children and published the data obtained – The data obtained was used to answer questions regarding development – Different baby biographies focused on different and incomparable components of development .
founder of developmental psychology and first to conceptualize the phase of adolescence • Hall was the first to use questionnaires to explore how children think and to formulate his theory – Theory: a set of concepts/propositions that allow the theorist to explain a phenomenon – Hypothesis: an educated guess about future events based on theories. Stanley Hall.Origins of a Science of development • G. which is then tested via additional data collection .
Research Methods: Developmental Psychology The Scientific Method• Value about the pursuit of knowledge which emphasizes the importance of investigator objectivity in deciding the merits of their theorizing • Protects against flawed reasoning .
Gathering data: • Measures need to be: – Reliable: yields consistent results. both over time and across observers – Valid: measures what it is supposed to measure .
Self –Report Methods • Interviews & Questionnaires: – Structured interview/questionnaire• Treats each participant equally for comparison purposes – Cons » Can’t be used with very young children » Participants my lie – Pros » Generates large amount of data in short time frame .
• The clinical method: – An interview where a participant’s response to each successive question determines what the examiner will ask next • Cons – Makes it difficult to compare participants to each other – allows for examiner subjectivity • Pros – Yields large amounts of information in a short period of time – Yields rich and more specific information .
Observational methods: • Naturalistic observation: – Observing people in their every-day surroundings • Pros – Could be easily used with infants and toddlers – Yields information on how people actually behave in their common surroundings • Cons – Some behaviors occur so infrequently or are so inappropriate that they will less likely be witnessed by an observer – Too many events might be occurring at the same time – Observer influence » Participants react to an observer’s presence by behaving in unusual ways .
Observational methods cont’d: • Time sampling – Procedure where the investigators records the frequency with which individuals display particular behaviors during the brief time interval that each participant is observed • Structured observation: – The behavior of interest is cued and observed in the laboratory • Pros – Good for observing behaviors that occur infrequently or are inappropriate – Standardization • Cons – Participants may not act similarly in a lab when compared to their every-day setting .
Case Studies: • The investigator gathers extensive information on one participant and tests developmental hypotheses by analyzing the events of the person’s life history. – Exp. Baby biographies • Cons – Difficult to compare cases because data is not structured – Lack of external validity .
– Pros • Yields rich information on a specific culture • Gives information on the developmental challenges of different minority groups – Cons • Very subjective • Lacks generalizability . and social process of a culture or subculture by living with its members.Ethnography: • The investigator tries to understand the values. traditions.
social. or emotional responses and development. cognitive. – Examples of psychophysilogical processes: • Heart rate • Brain wave activity – Pros • Useful for assessing biological underpinnings of development • Useful for communicating the emotions of infants – Cons • Cannot communicate with assurance what participants feel • The effects on physiological responses could be due to other variables .Psychophysiological Methods: • Method that explores the relationship between physiological processes and aspects of children’s physical.
Detecting Relationships • Correlational Design-Yields information about the relationship between two or more variables of interest without research intervention – Pros • Estimates the strength and direction of relationships among variables in the natural environment via a correlation coefficient – Cons • Does not determine cause-and-effect relationships .
Experimental Design: • Permit a precise assessment of the causeand-effect relationship that may exist between two variables – This design in employs: • Manipulation of the independent variable • Experimental control • Random assignment – Pros » Determines causation – Cons » May lack generalizability .
Quasi Experiment: • Gathers information on individuals who experience a natural manipulation of their environment – Pros • Permits the study of the impact of natural events or other difficult experiences • Provides strong cause-and-effects clues – Cons • Lacks experimental control due to ethical reasons .
subjects from different cohorts are studied at the same point in time – strengths • demonstrates age differences • taps a bit into developmental trends • practical in regards to cost and time – limitations • cohort effects • Does not provide information development .Designs for Studying Development • Cross-Sectional Design.
•Longitudinal Design – Observes people of one cohort repeatedly over a period of a couple of months to a lifetime • Strengths – provides information on development – can reveal links between early experiences and latter outcomes – shows similarities and differences in individual development • limitations – – – – – practice effects may be time consuming and expensive. selective attrition cross-generalization nonrepresentative sample .
• Sequential Design – Combines both the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs by observing different cohorts repeatedly over time • Strengths – detects true developmental changes – Allows us to compare the developmental of different cohorts – less costly and time consuming than the longitudinal design • Limitations • More costly and time consuming than the crosssectional design • Limited external validity .
Cross-Cultural Comparisons • Study that compares the behavior and/or development of people from different cultural or subcultural backgrounds – Guards against the overgeneralization of research findings – Detects whether there are true universal developmental changes – Seek differences in development .
Ethical Considerations in Developmental Research • Informed consent • Benefits-to-risk ratio • Confidentiality • Protection from harm .
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