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Learning & Motivation

It is a process through which one's behaviour is changed. Learning should be one's way of life. "Being ignorant is not so much a shame as being unwilling to learn to do things in the right way. Learning can lead to permanent change in one's behaviour e.g. if we have taken a Computer Course in Word Processing we will learn to use the computer in word processing speculation and this change is long lasting as long as we. Learning may be through direct or indirect ways. It is direct when one put extra efforts or take training and learn a new thing or trade like typing or computerization. It can also be due to indirect experience which leads to change in one's behaviour. Learning may be simply additional new information or a subtraction i.e. unlearning a bad habit or it may be modification i.e. adjusting new knowledge to old. It may be conscious or unconscious.

"Learning involves change, though not necessarily improvement in one's behaviour"
David. A. Garrin

"Learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts respond as a result of experience in a different ways”.
W.M. Gehee

“Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience or reinforced practice."
Costellow T. W.

"Every aspect of human behaviour is responsive to learning experience including knowledge, languages, skills attitudes, values and one's personality traits".Zalkind S.S

Features of Learning
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Learning involve a change in one's behaviour. The change in one's behaviour may not or may be an improvement over one's previous behaviour. Normally learning refers to acquiring positive and healthy practices and habits, but bad habits, prejudices, back-biting, dirty work politics may also be learned. Change through learning must be permanent in nature. Temporary change does not really represent any learning. Some form of good or bad experience is necessary for learning to take place.

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The practice of learning must be reinforced in order that learning occurs. If reinforcement does not accompany the practice or experience the behaviour will eventually disappear. Learning must be because of some interaction with the environment and some feed back from such environment which affects behaviour.inciples

Principles Of Learning
With respect to the consumer there are four elements which are the basis of learning:

Motives: this is the driving force that make the consumer to take the action for his unfulfilled needs. So the marketers use the motivation research to know the consumer motivation and developing new strategies.

Cues: In fact "Cues" is a weak stimulus not strong enough to arouse consumers but is capable of providing direction to already motivated activity e.g. when a person is hungry he is guided by certain cues such as restaurant signs, aroma of food as these are stimuli associated with food preparation and consumption. Response: The way consumer reacts to a 'cue' is the response which could be physical or mental leading to learning. But occurrence of a response is not always observable which does mean that learning is not taking place. Before learning occurs there is likelihood of response e.g. a hungry baby is likely to cry or exhibit sucking behaviour. Re-inforcement: It can be anything that increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the re-inforcement. It is repeated behaviour in future and serves to teach consumer a desired behaviour therefore marketers introduces negative re-inforcement such as cash discount to make timely payment of bills by consumers, no marks etc.

Factors Affecting Learning
Quality Of Environment Frequency Of One’s Pro Activeness Degree Of Motivation And Morale

Factors Affecting Learning

One’s Mind Set and Attitude

Quality of Learning Methods

Learning Theories
As per the psychologist there are three processes by which one acquire the process of learning. There are following theories of learning:

Classical Conditioning Theory. Operant Conditioning Theory. Cognitive Theory of Learning. Social Learning Theory.

Classical Conditioning Theory

As per this theory conditioning is the process in which an in effective object or situation becomes so much effective that it makes the hidden response out. For ex if a child gets excited every time she/he thinks of going to MacDonald's, the reaction may be conditioned from many pleasant visits to the restaurant. Classical conditioning pairs one stimulus with another that already elicits a given response and over a period of repeated trials, the new stimulus will also start causing the same or quite similar response. The Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov, was the first who pioneered the study of classical conditioning. He noticed that since his hungry dogs salivated (unconditioned response) at the sight of food (unconditioned stimulus), the connection between food and salivation is not taught and is just a reflex reaction. Pavlov reasoned that a neutral stimulus such as the sound of a ringing bell Could also cause the dogs to salivate if it was closely associated with the unconditioned stimulus.

Principles of Conditioning Learning
From the classical conditioning emerges three basic principles:

Repetition: Normally consumer have tendency to forget and one strongest method of increasing retention of learning is repetition. That is called repeated stimulus response. Consumers may learn a message which marketers want to impart by repeated exposure through T.V or print media. Through this consumer get familiar with the product and memorized it. Stimulus Generalization: It occurs when two stimuli are seen in as similar and the effects of one can be substituted for the effects of the other. Learning needs stimulus generalization i.e. make some response to some stimulus. It explain way manufacturers of a private brands try to make their packaging resemble to the national brand leader. Another marketing strategy on this line is the product line extension i.e. adding related products to an already established brand family. In fact branding is an extension of this strategy

Stimulus Discrimination: It is opposite of stimulus generalization. It is an important concept in marketing. Every market discriminates his product from those of competitors to get his position in the market. In this experiment when Pavlov presented some meat i.e. unconditional stimulus in front of dogs, he noticed a great deal of salivation i.e. unconditional Response. And on the other hand when he merely rang a bell i.e. natural stimulus the dog had no salivation. The next step which 'Pavlov' took that he accompanied the meat with the ringing of the bell. After doing this for several times he rang the bell without presenting the meat. This time the dog salivated to the bell alone. It mean that dog had become classically conditioned to salivate— Conditional response to the sound of the bell conditioned stimulus. He could establish a relationship between the two stimuli i.e. the bell and the meat in the mind of the dog.

"B.F. Skinner" proposed another alternative approach which came to known as "Operant Conditioning" in order to explain the more complex behaviour of human especially in an organizational setting operant condition argues that behaviour is function of its consequences. Behaviour is not likely to be repeated if the consequences are unfavorable. In simple words the relationship between behaviour and consequences is the essence of operant conditioning. The term operant indicates that the organism operates on its environment to generate consequences. Operant conditioning techniques are in these days extensively used in clinical, educational research, control of alcoholism and control of deviant children in a classroom. There can be many examples of operant conditioning learning process in the organization e.g. General Manager of a company can assures his officers and subordinates that he would reward all those people who will meet the extra target. But if the General Manager does not suitably reward the employee inspire of their meeting the target then next time the subordinate coolly decline to meet the extra target whenever again requested by the General Manager. So in this case the behaviour of the employee is the right example of operant conditioning

Classical Conditioning (S) Stimulus Response
i) Is stuck by a pin ii) The individual is shocked by an electric jumps/screams current


i) flinches ii)

Operant Conditioning (R) Response i) Works
ii) The individual enters a library

(S) Stimulus
i) is Paid ii) finds

Cognition we mean an individual's thoughts, knowledge, interpretations, understanding or ideas about himself and his environment." In fact cognition is the act of knowing an item of information and to see that knowledge affects the behaviour of the provides so that information produce cognitive affect towards the expected goal. As it is found that in both above theories— classical and operant conditioning result in a stimulus response (S-R) situation which is simply a cause effect relationship. But there is deviation in the cognitive theory of learning which believes that the learning is considered as the outcome of the deliberate thinking about the problem or situation based on institutions. The theory of cognitive learning is basically based on the experiment conducted by Mr. Tolman where he used rats in his laboratory to show that rats have learned to run through a complicated maze towards their goal of food. He observed that rats developed expectations at every choice point in the maze. Thus they learned to expect that certain cognitive cues related to the choice point could ultimately lead to food. In the opinion of Mr. Tolman in an organizational set up some training programme can be designed to strengthen cues such as supervision, worker's expectation such giving them monetary and other rewards. It was believed that the worker would learn to be more productive by building a relationship between following the directions and guidelines and expectancy of monetary rewards for these efforts. Likewise, if home delivery, discounts or installment facilities are given to consumer they will learn and go for more sales.

As the name suggests this theory emphasis that people can learn through both observation and direct experience. It is extension of operant conditioning. It emphasis that people learn by observing what happens to other people. As during festival seasons people buy because their friends or neighbors are buying. Most of our learning is by observing and imitating our models like parents, teachers, colleagues, superiors, and successful people. It mean one learn through both observation and direct experience that is exactly what is social learning.

Motivation is said to be the driving force within individuals produced by a state of tension caused by unfulfilled needs and wants. Individuals strive to reduce this tension through appropriate behaviour which they expect will satisfy their needs. Much depends on individual thinking and learning in selecting the goals and the patterns of behaviour that they believe will satisfy their needs. Whether an individual's need is fulfilled leading to reduction of tension depends on the course of action the individual takes.

Motivation Process
Unfulfilled Needs, wants And desire Tension Drive Behavior Goal or need


Cognitive Processes Tension reduction

"Motivation is something that moves a person into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically. Infact it represents to the entire class of urges, drives, desires, needs and similar forces." "Motivation can be defined as a willingness to spends energy to achieve a goal or a reward." Dale. S. Beach "Motivation is a reported urge of intention to move in a given direction or to achieve a certain goal." Carrol Shartle "Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get the desired reaction." Michael. J. Jucius "An emotion or desire which so changes the will of one individual that he is compelled into action, is motivation." Stanley Vance "Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do their work through the possibility of getting a reward." Edwin. B. Flippo

Features Of Motivation

Motivation is a psychological concept: Motivation is a psychological concept that comes from inside the individual. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influence the direction, volume, behaviour and limitations of efforts of an individual. So, motivation is an inducement of inner feeling of an individual and it cannot be forced upon from outside. Motivation is system oriented: Motivation is the result of inter actions among three types of forces : Influence forces : operating within an individual i.e. his goals, needs, values and attitudes. Influence forces operating within the organization: These are organization structure, technology, physical facilities, nature of jobs etc., and Forces operating in the external environment: These are culture, customs, norms etc. of the society.

Motivation can be positive or negative: Positive motivation implies use of incentives such as increase in pay, reward, promotion etc. for better work, while negative motivation is to emphasize on penalties such as reprimands, threat of demotion, fear of loss of job etc. In the case of consumer, when he does not get satisfaction as per money worth his morale is decreased and he feels dismotivated. In case the product or services provide him full satisfaction he is motivated and tries to become a loyal and a permanent customer.

Motivation is an unending process: Human being is a social animal has innumerable wants to satisfy which induce him to work. All wants cannot be satisfied at one time. One want is satisfied and the other may emerge. Satisfaction of wants is an unending process, so motivation is also an unending process.

The whole individual is motivated: Each individual is an integrated organized whole and part of him cannot be motivated because motivation is a psychological concept that is concerned with the whole individual. A man's basic needs determine to a great extent what lie will try to do at any given time and all these needs are interrelated and cannot be separated from each other. In fact majority of human needs are never fully or permanently satisfied. Individuals who successfully achieve their goals usually set new higher go as for themselves, they raise their level of aspiration which never ends.

Motivation leads to satisfaction: Motivation and satisfaction are related but not synonymous. Motivation is a derive to satisfy a want and it is goal-oriented behaviour. Satisfaction on the other hand refers to contentment experienced after the satisfaction of want. Motivation is the process whereas job satisfaction is the outcome or consequence.