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Develop undestanding of Six Sigmaof Six Sigma Quality Develop understanding
What Is Six Sigma?
Measure of Quality
Six Sigma is a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. The Six Sigma process uses data and rigorous statistical analysis to identify "defects" in a process or product, reduce variability, and achieve as close to zero defects as possible.
The Six Sigma methodology incorporates this data and statistical analysis into a project-based workflow that allows businesses to make intelligent decisions about where and how to incorporate improvements. Six Sigma takes its name from the Greek letter "sigma. Six Sigma defines and estimates the opportunities for error and calculates defects in the same way every time." which is used in statistics to indicate standard deviation. .What Is Six Sigma? Measure of Quality Using a universal measurement scale. thus offering a means for measuring improvement. In fact.
It is a rigorous methodology to improve process control. .What Is Six Sigma? Measure of Quality 6 Sigma is a Statistically based Quality Program.
Process Capability needs to be Better than you think ! Activity Mail Delivery Defects @ 99% ( 3.9997% ( 6 Sigma ) 7 lost articles of mail per hour Drinking Water Hospital Surgery Air Travel Unsafe drinking water for 15 mins per day 5000 incorrect procedures per week 2 abnormal landings at most airports each day Unsafe drinking water for 2 mins per year 2 incorrect procedures per week 1 abnormal landing every 5 years Sometimes 99% is just not good enough .000 lost articles of mail per hour Defects @ 99.8 Sigma ) 20.
What Is Six Sigma? Process For Continuous Improvement 6 Sigma provides a process based approach to continuous improvement. It is independent of the measurement involved & can be used to improve any business process .
Two Routes to choose from : 1) Improved Control DMAIC Analyze Improve Control Define Measure The Process is capable .the Issues lie with the Variation .
The DMAIC model includes five phases: Define Measure opportunities performance Analyze Improve Control opportunity performance performance .How to do ? The DMAIC Model At the heart of Six Sigma is a systematic method for analyzing and improving business process called DMAIC.
2) New Process DF S S Design For Six Sigma New Process Development Creating 6 Sigma Process Capability .
6 Sigma requires a radical change in the way an organization works.What Is Six Sigma? Enabler For Cultural Change To be successful. Business Leadership and 6 Sigma can together transform a company .
Speed everywhere True Focus on What the Customer Wants Improved Employee Satisfaction .It’s all about Getting Results Significantly Higher Net Income Simpler Processes .
brain CHEST ABDOMEN PELVIS 3 minutes 17 seconds LIVER 20 seconds 06 seconds 4 million 6 million Abdomen: liver.Example of 6 Sigma LightSpeed CT Scanner Exam Time Before Exam Time After Procedures per Year HEAD 1 minute SPINE 2 minutes 15 seconds 19 seconds 9 million 1 million Head: skull. kidney Image Speeds Before After Unparalleled Resolution in a Fraction of the Time . spine.
6 Concepts Concept Critical-To-Quality Characteristics (CTQ) Definition Customer performance requirements of a product or service Any event that does not meet the specifications of a CTQ Any event which can be measured that provides a chance of not meeting a customer requirement Defect Defect Opportunity Concept Defects At The Core Of 6 Concept OfOf Defects At The Core Of 6 .
Data Types Continuum of Data Types Discrete Continuous Binary Ordered categories Count Description Classified into one of two categories Rankings or ratings Counted discretely Measured on a continuum or scale Example % of applications with one or more errors Customer satisfaction rating of call center service Number of errors in an application Time (in hours) to process an application How Does The Customer Measure Your Process? .
000 DPU x10 6 dpmo Opportunities or dpmo x Opportunities DPU = 10 6 .25 dpmo = 250.125 dpmo = 125.000 DPU = 2 dpo = 0.5 dpmo = 500.000 DPU = 3 dpo = 0.DPU and DPMO = 1 unit 1 unit = 4 opportunities = 1 opportunity = defect DPU = 1 dpo = 0.75 dpmo = 750.000 Is this unit better than the one shown above it? DPU = 1 dpo = 0.
4. Look up Process Sigma in 333.000 6.000 = __________ • 1.333 DPMO = DPO • 1.000 Sigma = 1.93 .333 3.Sigma Calculation 1. 2. Number of Units processed Number of Defect Opportunities Per Unit 15 N = __________ 1 O = __________ 5 D = __________ 5 0.000.000 = _________ Abridged Process Sigma Conversion Table 1.93 Sigma(ST) = __________ DPMO – 333. Total number of Defects made Defects Per Opportunity DPO = D N•O ( ) = ) ( 15 ) ( 1 5.000. Convert DPO to DPMO 0.
Defects] / Total Opportunities * 100 .Yield Yield = [Total opportunities .
Customer has Stated and Unstated needs and we try to extract both .Tools used for Six Sigma Quality = meeting customer needs and providing superior value. Meeting customer needs requires that those needs be understood. VOC The "voice of the customer" is the term to describe the stated and unstated customer needs or requirements.
. surveys. •VOC data can be offered freely by a customer or actively solicited by a business. focus groups. feedback forms etc. •It can be conveyed in written or verbal form. This could be done by way of interviews. or it can be expressed by the customer's actions.VOC •The Voice of the Customer (VOC) refers to information from customers gained from a variety of sources about the expected and/or actual performance of a product or process •Voice of the Customer data can be quantitative or qualitative and is derived from a number of sources.
• a manufacturer does a survey of the potential market before introducing a new product . . For example.VOC Focus Groups •A structured group interview of potential users or stakeholders •Used for collecting Qualitative data such as opinion. Survey A method of gathering information from a sample of individuals... • a sample of voters is questioned in advance of an election to determine how the public perceives the candidates and the issues . •An interview may be held in person or by telephone with an individual or a group.. attitudes etc Interview •An interview is a structured question-and-answer session designed to obtain specific information. • a government entity commissions a survey to gather the factual information it needs to evaluate existing legislation or to draft proposed new legislation.
Quality Function Deployment WHAT IS QFD ? Method for Translating Customer Requirements Into An Appropriate Company Program and Technical Requirements at Each Phase of the Product Realization Cycle. An Orderly Process for Determining CTQs Common Sense Approach BASIS .REALLY LISTEN .Ask Your Customer Listen --.QFD QFD .
QFD WHAT DOES QFD DO? CONCEPT CUSTOMER PLAN DESIGN REDESIGN MANUFACTURE PLAN DESIGN REDESIGN MANUFACTURE BENEFITS BENEFITS QFD IS A PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCER .
QFD QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT System Features (HOW’s) Product Functionality (HOW’s) Customer Wants (WHAT’s) System Features (WHAT’s) Product Functionality (WHAT’s) System Characteristics (WHAT’s) House of Quality #1 House of Quality #2 System Characteristics (HOW’s) Design Alternatives (HOW’s) House of Quality #3 Y Critical-to-Quality Characteristics (CTQs) House of Quality #4 X Key Characteristics RDD Key Process Variables NOTE: The How’s at One Level Become the What’s at the Next Level .
CTQ What is Critical to Quality (CTQ)? What a customer tells us they want from our product / service or process output CTQs are rendered from Voice of Customer (VOC) CTQs must be specific CTQs must be measurable CTQs must be actionable Why Is It Important To Move From VOC to CTQ? Moving from VOC to CTQ enables us to clearly state customer needs that are specific. CTQs help us to know exactly what product feature or process performance level is required in order to meet the customer’s need. Translating is NOT re-writing the voice of the customer. Accurate VOC-to-CTQ translation is critical to achieve positive customer impact. measurable and actionable. but is clearly stating the specific process requirements and specifications CTQs are the primary input to our performance measurements and improvement efforts. CTQs are defined when VOC is effectively translated into specific & measurable requirements .
“30”) Unit of Measure (how output is quantified by the customer. e.CTQ CTQs always have three elements: CTQ Category (also known as an Output Characteristic or CTQ name.g. Claims Processing Timeliness) Customer Specification (customer’s requirement of our product/ service or process.g.The Bridge Between Our Processes & Customer Delight! . “Days”) CTQ Example: Claims Processing Timeliness: 30 Days Category Specification Unit of Measure ACHT (Average Call Handle Time): 160 secs TAT (Turn Around Time): 1 day CTQs .g. e. e.
Q1) Q3 + 1.Boxplots By default. The adjacent values are the lowest and highest observations that are still inside the region defined by the following limits: Lower Limit: Upper Limit: Q1 . the bottom of the box is at the first quartile (Q1). whiskers. A line is drawn across the box at the median. and outliers. a boxplot consists of a box.Q1) .5 (Q3 .5 (Q3 . By default. The whiskers are the lines that extend from the top and bottom of the box to the adjacent values. and the top is at the third quartile (Q3) value.1.
Fish bone / root cause • Purpose – Create a Visual Display of possible root causes • When – to expand your thinking to consider all possible causes – To gain Group’s input .
Also called Cause and Effect Diagram X (Material) X (Measurement) X (Methods) Ys (Effect) X (Machinery) X (People) X (Enviornment) X s (Causes) called as 5 Ms and 1 P Brainstorming tool … root cause analysis of any Effect (Y) .
process and function Getting it right first time.Quality Involves. not just fixing it afterwards .. Every single one of us Every job.. product.
How You Can Get Involved Today • Think about your own metrics – Who are your customers: internal and external? – What do you deliver to your customers? – What do they think is critical to their using your product to get their job done? – How do you measure up? .
. highperformance results from your products and processes. Six Sigma is about more than numbers.Ultimately. By increasing performance and decreasing variation. It's a highly disciplined methodology and practice that provides the tools you need to achieve consistent. data-driven decisions that ultimately yield a reduction in product defects. and high-quality products a win-win situation for everyone involved. increased profits and employee morale. Six Sigma allows organizations like yours to make customer-focused.
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