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6 Fraction , decimals

and percentage

Fraction

Fraction

4 Key vocabulary

1. Cancel, convert, decimal,

2. denominator, equivalent fraction,

3. fraction, improper fraction, lowest terms,

4. mixed number, numerator, proper

5. fraction, recurring decimal,

6. simplest form, terminating decimal,

7. unit fraction

Fraction

4 Find some more real-life fraction

facts.

4 Eg:

1. Ninety –seven hundredths of water

on earth is in the ocean

2. Four out of five teenagers worry

about exams

The history of fractions

4 Found by an Egyptian priest called

Ahmes in his famous document

Rhind Papyrus.

4 It is entitled, ”Directions for knowing

all dark things” – the oldest ‘book’ on

mathematics in the world.

4 Using the fractions with unity ‘1’ as a

numerator.

The writing of fractions

4 Ahmes Papyrus

[ as ½

∩ as

So represent as [

This is called

‘hieroglyphics’

4 Babylonians

- fractions with 60

as the denominator

So represent as

4 Romans

- express as

twelfths

- represent as

3

2

4

3

1111

4

3

60

45

4

3

12

9

Different Ways to Represent a Fraction

4 A fraction disc

8

3

• A fraction strip

8

3

A fraction number line

1/8 2/8

3/8

8/8

=1

0

Types of Fractions

(a) Proper Fractions

= numerator is less than denominator

4 Example:

‘three sevenths’

7

3

numerator

denominator

Types of Fractions

(b) Unit fractions have numerator 1

4 Eg; ., ±, U are unit fractions

4 This 8 x 3 rectangles is divided into three

parts

Write the fractions for difference color of

parts.

Blue is

.

Red is ±

Yellow is ±

Types of Fractions

(c) Improper Fractions

= numerator is equal to or greater

than the denominator

Example:

3

5

5

5

‘Five third’ ‘five fifths’

Types of Fractions

(d) A mixed number

= a whole number(exept zero) and

fraction part

4 Example:

5

2

3

‘Three and two fifths’

Types of Fractions

(e) Equivalent fractions

= same value but expressed in

different numerators and

denominators

4 Example:

10

5

8

4

4

2

2

1

One number as a fraction of another

4 A fraction is in its lowest terms if the

numerator and denominator have no

common factors

4 We cancel a fraction to its lowest terms

by dividing the numerator and

denominator by the highest common

factor

4 Eg:

=

20

15

4 Example:

(a) Write 43 centimetres as a fraction

of a metre.

(b) A small serving of toasted muesli

has 120 Calories. A small serving of

light toasted muesli has 100

Calories. What fraction of 120 is

100?

(c) In Safwan’s class, 18 pupils had

brothers and six had no brothers.

What fraction had brothers?

Fraction and decimals

4 To convert a decimal to a fraction

write it with denominator 10, 100,

or 1000.

Example:

(a) 0.54 (b) 0.839 (c) 0.6

Solution:

(a) 27/50 (b) 839/1000 (c) 3/5

Fraction and decimals

4 Fractions convert to either a

terminating or a recurring decimal.

4 0.625 and 6.4 are terminating

decimals because they end and have

a finite number of digits.

4 A recurring decimals has one or

more digits that repeat

eg: 1/3 = 0.3333…

2/3 = o.6666…

3/11 = 0.272727…

Fraction and decimals

4 To write a fraction as a decimal we can;

1. Use known facts

Eg: 3/5 = 3 x 1/5 = 3 x 0.2

2. Make the denominator 10 or 100

Eg: 7/25 = 28/100 = 0.28

3. Divide the numerator by the denominator

Eg: 4/7

4. Use a calculator

Eg: 36/42

Comparing fractions

4 (a) A diagram is a good way to

compare fractions

4 From the diagram;

. > ± > ¯ > _ > ± > : > l

Comparing fractions

4 (b) We can also divide lines of the

same length into parts

4 Eg: 3/8 and 3/5

From the diagram;

3/5 > 3/8

Comparing fractions

4 (c) We can also compare fractions by

converting them to decimals.

4 Eg: Compare ¾ and 5/7

Solution: ¾ = 0.75

5/7 = 0.71

0.75 > 0.71

¾ > 5/7

Adding and subtracting fractions

(a)We can add and subtract simple

fractions mentally

4 Eg: 1. . + ¯

2. _ + ±

3. . + l

4 Solution: 1. ¾

2. 11/30

3. 5/8

Adding and subtracting fractions

(b) Its easy to add and subtract when

the denominators are the same

4 Eg: 1. ¯ + ·

2. _ + ©

3. ª - l

Solution: 1. 4/4 = 1

2. 5/5 = 1

3. 4/8 = ½

Adding and subtracting fractions

4 (c) We add and subtract fractions

with different denominators using

equivalent fractions.

4 Eg: 1. 1/3 + 5/6

2. 7/8 – ¼

4 Solution: 1. 9/6

2. 5/8

Multiplying of Fractions

4 Remember ¯ of 16 = ¯ x 16 = 16 4

4 Eg: 1. · x 6

2. © x 25

3. ª x 24

4 Solution: 1. 9/2

2. 20

3. 15

Dividing an integer by a fraction

4 2 ± means ?

4 ‘ How many ±s are there in 2 ?

4 The answer is 6.

4 We could write this as 2 = x ±

Dividing an integer by a fraction

(a) Each circle has been divided into

fourths.

4 How could we use this to find the answer

to 4 ¯ ?

4 Discuss.

Dividing an integer by a fraction

(b) How would you divide this rumbus to

help you find the answer to 3 ½ ?

Discuss.

Dividing an integer by a fraction

Fraction

1.

Key vocabulary

Cancel, convert, decimal, denominator, equivalent fraction, fraction, improper fraction, lowest terms, mixed number, numerator, proper fraction, recurring decimal, simplest form, terminating decimal, unit fraction

2.

3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

Fraction 1. Find some more real-life fraction facts. 2. Eg: Ninety –seven hundredths of water on earth is in the ocean Four out of five teenagers worry about exams .

It is entitled. . ”Directions for knowing all dark things” – the oldest ‘book’ on mathematics in the world.The history of fractions Found by an Egyptian priest called Ahmes in his famous document Rhind Papyrus. Using the fractions with unity ‘1’ as a numerator.

express as twelfths .fractions with 60 as the denominator 3 represent as [ 1111 4 This is called ‘hieroglyphics’ So 3 represent as 45 4 60 Romans .The writing of fractions Ahmes Papyrus [ as ∩ as So ½ 2 3 Babylonians .3 represent as 9 4 12 .

Different Ways to Represent a Fraction A fraction disc 3 8 .

• A fraction strip 3 8 .

A fraction number line 0 1/8 2/8 3/8 8/8 =1 .

Types of Fractions (a) Proper Fractions = numerator is less than denominator Example: numerator ‘three sevenths’ 3 7 denominator .

. are unit fractions This 8 x 3 rectangles is divided into three parts Blue is Red is Yellow is Write the fractions for difference color of parts. . .Types of Fractions (b) Unit fractions have numerator 1 Eg.

Types of Fractions (c) Improper Fractions = numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator Example: 5 3 5 5 ‘Five third’ ‘five fifths’ .

Types of Fractions (d) A mixed number = a whole number(exept zero) and fraction part Example: ‘Three and two fifths’ 2 3 5 .

Types of Fractions (e) Equivalent fractions = same value but expressed in different numerators and denominators Example: 1 2 4 5 2 4 8 10 .

One number as a fraction of another A fraction is in its lowest terms if the numerator and denominator have no common factors We cancel a fraction to its lowest terms by dividing the numerator and denominator by the highest common factor Eg: 15 = 20 .

A small serving of toasted muesli has 120 Calories. 18 pupils had brothers and six had no brothers. What fraction had brothers? . A small serving of light toasted muesli has 100 Calories. What fraction of 120 is 100? In Safwan’s class. (a) (b) (c) Example: Write 43 centimetres as a fraction of a metre.

54 (b) 0.6 Solution: (a) 27/50 (b) 839/1000 (c) 3/5 . 100. or 1000.Fraction and decimals To convert a decimal to a fraction write it with denominator 10.839 (c) 0. Example: (a) 0.

Fraction and decimals Fractions convert to either a terminating or a recurring decimal.272727… .6666… 3/11 = 0. 0.3333… 2/3 = o.625 and 6. A recurring decimals has one or more digits that repeat eg: 1/3 = 0.4 are terminating decimals because they end and have a finite number of digits.

Use a calculator Eg: 36/42 . Make the denominator 10 or 100 Eg: 7/25 = 28/100 = 0.Fraction and decimals 1.2 2. Use known facts Eg: 3/5 = 3 x 1/5 = 3 x 0.28 3. To write a fraction as a decimal we can. Divide the numerator by the denominator Eg: 4/7 4.

>>>>>> .Comparing fractions (a) A diagram is a good way to compare fractions From the diagram.

3/5 > 3/8 .Comparing fractions (b) We can also divide lines of the same length into parts Eg: 3/8 and 3/5 From the diagram.

75 5/7 = 0.75 > 0.71 0. Eg: Compare ¾ and 5/7 Solution: ¾ = 0.Comparing fractions (c) We can also compare fractions by converting them to decimals.71 ¾ > 5/7 .

11/30 3. + 2. 5/8 .Adding and subtracting fractions (a)We can add and subtract simple fractions mentally Eg: 1. + 3. ¾ 2. + Solution: 1.

4/4 = 1 2. + 2.Adding and subtracting fractions (b) Its easy to add and subtract when the denominators are the same Eg: 1. . 5/5 = 1 3. + 3. Solution: 1. 4/8 = ½ .

9/6 2. 5/8 . Eg: 1. 1/3 + 5/6 2.Adding and subtracting fractions (c) We add and subtract fractions with different denominators using equivalent fractions. 7/8 – ¼ Solution: 1.

9/2 2. 15 4 . x 24 Solution: 1. x 6 2. x 25 3. Multiplying of Fractions Remember of 16 = x 16 = 16 Eg: 1. 20 3.

We could write this as 2 = x .Dividing an integer by a fraction 2 means ? ‘ How many s are there in 2 ? The answer is 6.

Dividing an integer by a fraction (a) Each circle has been divided into fourths. . How could we use this to find the answer to 4 ? Discuss.

Dividing an integer by a fraction (b) How would you divide this rumbus to help you find the answer to 3 ½ ? Discuss. .

Dividing an integer by a fraction .

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