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Geochemistry in Understanding and Exploration of Unconventional/ Alternate Energy Resources

Biofuels from micro algae


and higher plants Coal Bed Methane Shale Gas Gas Hydrates Underground Coal Gasification

Vitrinite

Inertinite Liptinite
Coal Maceral Characterization for CBM

Gas Hydrate

Bio-Fuels

Bio-diesel the future fuel


In Bio-diesel country has a ray of hope.

Bio-diesel is made from vegetable oil through a process trans-esterification. It is produced by all tree borne oilseed plants like: 1) Jatropha Curcas 2) Rapeseed 3) Sunflower 4) Soyabean etc
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Bio-Diesel
Advantages of Jatropha Curcas. 1) It has 35-40% oil content 2) Oil extraction is upto 90%. 3) It can provide energy security to remote and rural areas. 4)It has superior lubricity than diesel. 5) Lower exhaust emissions from engines

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Bio-Diesel
6) It has practically no sulphur. 7) Healthy environment. 8) No net CO2 addition to the atmosphere. 9) It can extend engine life.

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COAL BED METHANE


Methane, a greenhouse gas, is released to the atmosphere during and after the mining of coal, contributing to climate change. Methane is adsorbed in coal seams. This coal bed methane usually escapes into the atmosphere when coal is mined.

The estimated potential of CBM in the country is in the range of 1400-2600 billion cu. meters
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CBM: Indian Scenario


Fields 1.Raniganj 2. Jharia 3. E. Bokaro & W. Bokaro 4. Satpura 5. Singrauli 6. Sohagpur 7. Talcher 8. Chanda-Wardha 9. Godavari Valley 10. Tertiary Coal fields of NE 11. Gujarat (Sub-Surface Coal) 12. Neyveli Lignite 13. J & K Coal Fields 14. Palana-Rajasthan -

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UNDER GROUND COAL GASSIFICATION


India is richly endowed with coal reserves, with around 300 billion tones of reserves, out of which only 50 billion tones are recoverable . In-situ coal gasification at abandoned coal mines may provide an economically attractive option for full extraction of energy from in-place reserves. UCG involves converting un-mineable coal into combustible gases by gasifying the coal in-situ. It is a chemical process in which coal is subjected to gasification by igniting coal and sustaining ignition by injecting oxygen and steam into the coal seam.

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UCG.Cont.

Produced gases are mixture of gases like carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane and non combustible gases as well. The gases thus produced can be utilized as fuel gas and for power generation and as a feed stock for liquid fuels and petrochemicals.
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Gas Hydrates
A gas hydrate consists of a water lattice in which light hydrocarbon molecules are embedded resembling dirty ice.

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Naturally occurring gas hydrates are a form of water ice which contains a large amount of methane within its crystal structure. They are restricted to the shallow lithosphere

With pressurization, they remain stable at temperatures up to 18C.

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The average hydrate composition is 1 mole of methane for every 5.75 moles of water. The observed density is around 0.9 g/cm3. One liter of Hydrate solid would contain 168 liters of methane gas (at STP).

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Where are gas hydrates located?

It is present in oceanic sediments along continental margins and in polar continental settings.
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CHARACTERIZATION GAS HYDRATE SAMPLES FROM EASTERN OFFSHORE

d13C methane (%o),PDB 1000000 10D-7X 2-63-68 10D-8X 1-140-150 10D-10X 4-75-80 100000 21A-9X 3-30 21A-9X 136-146

Bacterial gas
10000

21A-12X 3-130 17A-68X 3-131 17A-69X 3-23 17A-72X 3-68

C1/C2+C3

17A-74X 3-118 1000 17A-80X 4-1 17A-82X 4-1 17A-83X 2-63 100

Mixed gases

18A-16X 4-123 18A-18X 5-1 19A-17E-T1 19A-17E-T2 19A-30X 5-8 19A-31X 5-6 19A-37X 5-1

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Thermogenic gas

1 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30

Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Ratios in CH4 are Effective Tools for Identifying the Specific Origin of Methane ( Microbial vs. Thermogenic)

Pore water salinities reduce drastically in gas hydrate zones

Shale Gas

Shale Gas is gas produced from Shale Rocks


Shale gas meets 17% of natural gas demand of USA. In coming years shale gas shall be a major contributor of Natural Gas in India also

India is the only country apart from USA and Canada to have discovered shale gas. Shale rocks have low permeability.
Shale gas production involves horizontal drilling and hydro fracturing. 3/25/2012 Technical Services 16