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CONTENT

INTRODUCTION EVOLUTION ETHICAL PRINCIPLES CODE OF ETHICS SOME UNETHICAL PRACTICES CONCLUSION

ETHICS is a branch of philosophy , which deals with the examination of human conduct.

Ethics derived from Greek word ethos means custom,used in context of Mans character

DENTAL ETHICS means the moral duties & obligations of the dentist towards his/her patients, professional colleagues & to the society.

The practice of modern dentistry delivery of quality care combined with adherence to excellent business principles. The dental profession is a vocation in which knowledge & skill is used for the service of others.

EVOLUTION
The HIPPOCRATIC OATH(4th century B.C.) The NUREMBERG CODE(1947 A.D.) DECLARATION OF GENEVA(1948) WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL CODE OF MEDICAL ETHICS(1949) DECLARATION OF HELSINKI(1964)

HIPPOCRATIC OATH

ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To do no harm(non-maleficence) To do good(beneficence) Respect for persons Justice Veracity or truthfulness Confidentiality.

Attributed to Hippocrates. Considered to be the foundation of social morality. Iatrogenic diseases- the doctor induced illness, over-hanging restorations- cause periodontal disease, failure in sterilisation techniques- cause infection.

To do no harm(Nonmaleficence)

To do good(Beneficence) Required of all health care providers.


A care provider should initiate beneficial action, as well as not to inflict harm. One should go beyond mere respect for a persons choice to maximize benefits. The consequences of treatment verses no treatment should be measured. Attempts should be to maximize benefits & minimize harm.

Respect for others


It incorporates at least two fundamental ethical considerations-> -Autonomy -informed consent

Autonomy
A principle that dictates that health care proffesionals respect patients right to make decisions concerning the treatment plan.

Informed consent
Informed consent both a legal and an athical concept, is an essential component of a patients right to autonomy. Largest principle of Nuremberg code. It is a two step process->1st-information is presented to the patient by the doctor ->2nd-the patient satisfies himself/herself that he/she understands; & according to it agrees or refuses for the treatment.

Justice
Described as fairness or equal treatment The primary duty of health professional is service irrespective of class, creed, etc. . It demands each person to be treated equally. The principle of justice calls for an obligation to protect the weak and to ensure equity in rights and benefits, both for groups and for individuals.

Patient-Doctor relationship is based on trust. Lying shows disrespect to the patient and threatens relationship. -with such act the relationship will ultimately suffer and the dentist will be guilty of transgressing a major ethical principle.

Veracity or Truthfulness

Confidentiality
The communications and records pertaining to the care should be treated confidential. It should not be disclosed without the consent of the patient or an order from the presiding judge in a Court of law.

This Code of Ethics is a set of principles of professional conduct to which dentists must aspire to fulfil their duties to their patients, to the public, to the profession, and to their colleagues.
A dentist's foremost responsibility is to the patient. Dentistry is a profession, in part, because the decisions of its members involve moral choices. Every dental practitioner makes decisions that involve choices between conflicting values while providing care for patients.

CODE OF ETHICS
I. The duties & obligations of dentist towards the patients II. Duties of dentists towards one another III. Duties of dentists to the public

Some unethical practices:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Practice by unregistered persons False claim to registration Misuse of titles Unregistered assistants & covering Styling the dental clinic by the name of dental hospital 6. .

CONCLUSION
A professional person is expected have respect for human beings, competence in his chosen field, integrity and a primary concern with service rather than with prestige or profit. Ethical codes are the result of an attempt to direct the moral consciousness of the members of the profession to its peculiar problems. These are important in developing higher standards of conduct.

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