Environment Management

Project on “Mangroves around the world” “Importance and Why to protect”

Mangroves – An Introduction
• A mangrove is a tree, shrub, palm or ground fern, generally exceeding one half metre in height, that normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zone of marine coastal environments and estuarine margins. • A mangrove is also the tidal habitat comprising such trees and shrubs • The term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish word “mangue” and english word “grow”

the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home for a great variety of other organisms. • Protection from strong winds & waves • Soil stabilization & erosion protection • Nutrient retention and water quality improvement through filtration of sediments and pollutants • Protection of associated marine ecosystems .Ecosystem • Though the trees themselves are few in species.

• Asia. Indo-Pacific region is also known as luxuriant Mangroves • Sunderbans of India and Bangladesh forms the single largest block of mangroves of the world . India.Evolution of Mangroves • Evolved around 114 million years ago • Indo-Malaysian area is considered as cradle of evolution of mangrove system • Mangroves of West Africa and Americas contain fewer but similar colinizing species. and East Africa contains much full range of mangove species • At present.

km – 7% of the world‟s total area of mangroves • 80% of the mangroves are present in the east coast • Remaining 20% are scattered on the west coast from Kutch to Kerela .Where do Mangroves occur? • The richest mangrove communities occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas • The best mangroves are found in Asia especially in India and Bangladesh • Sunderbans are the largest forest mangrove in the world both in size as well as biodiversity • Total area of Mangroves is about 6.740 sq.

fish. which is fast diminishing • Purify the water by absorbing impurities and harmful heavy metals and help us to breathe a clean air by absorbing pollutants in the air. ecological disasters and as protector of shorelines • Harbour a variety of lifeforms like invertebrates. birds and even mammals like tigers • Save the marine diversity.Importance of Mangroves • Buffer between land and sea • Play an invaluable role as nature's shield against cyclones. reptiles. amphibians. • Potential source for recreation and tourism • Saviors in today‟s scenario of global warming .

• The Indian mangroves are represented by approximately 59 species (inclusive of some mangrove associates) from 29 families. .Mangroves vegetation • The mangrove flora of the world is represented by about 65 species.

They are called "cable roots". • Rhizophora mucronata (Red Mangrove): It is often notice as a front mangrove plant where the shore is well protected. rope-like and filled with air. It has thick. • Sonneratia alba (Mangrove Apple): It prefers non swampy intertidal zones and prefers open areas with some wave action. • Parviflora (Small leaf orange mangrove): Essentially a back mangrove species.Few commonly found plant species in Mangrove ecosystem are: • Rhizophora apiculata (Red Mangrove): It grows well in sheltered areas rather than open seas exposed to the wave action. The leaves are supposed to be used for treating high blood pressure. The species is quite similar to R. It has a high growth rate and is economically important. . The apple like fruits are edible and used in pickles. apetala • Bruguiera gymnorhiza (Broad leaf orange mangrove): Roots are characteristically thick. It is a useful tree for commercial extraction of tannin. pointed and long pneumatophores.

. • Avicennia officinalis: Of the three dominant species of Avicennia this is the tallest. It seeds profusely between January and March and fruits are curved and very finely pointed. The wood is used as timber and fuel. Its shrubby nature and spiny leaves make it an outstanding species. Leaves useful as fodder for cattle. Extraction of tannin is still done at some places. Salt tolerance of this species is comparatively low and grows only in the areas where there is good mixing of freshwater at least for a few months. • Avicennia marina: Avicennia spp have the highest salt tolerance of mangrove trees. The nectar produces fine quality honey.• Ceriops tagal (spur mangrove): A widely distributed species with a high tolerance for salinity.The blue flowers are also a source of nectar for honey bees. One of the dominant species found throughout the coastline. The flowers and leaves are used for decoration in Kerala. • Aegiceras corniculatum (River mangrove): A densely flowering shrub. • Acanthus ilicifolius (Shore purslane): One may notice this attractive plant in the back mangrove zones.

• Nypa fruticans (Golpatta): This is a characteristic palm species and resembles a shrunken coconut tree. It is used as a fuel and its trunk is used for constructing traditional hutment. It prefers well consolidated but moist tidal zones with a low to medium level of salinity preferably with freshwater mixing. It produces timber of excellent quality which is said to be more expensive than teak. Bengal. this species forms a major zone along the upper reaches of the delta. In Sunderbans. It grows naturally only on the East Coast. .• Phoenix padulosa (Sea Date): This palm species is also called as sea date and is a relative of the common date. The name Sunderban perhaps has been derived from the abundance of this species in the Gangetic delta. • Heritiera fomes (Sundari): This plant is locally called as sundari in W.

In the case of rivers. areas likely to be inundated due to rise in sea level consequent upon global warming and such other areas as notified by government from time to time. river or backwater whichever less is. the distance from the high tide level shall apply to both sides and this distance shall not be less than 100m or the width of the creek. . • CRZ – Definition “Coastal regulation zone is the boundary from the high tide line up to 500m in the land – ward side area between the low tide line.” • There are four categories of CRZ‟s. Category – I (CRZ I) Areas which are ecologically sensitive and important such as national parks. area rich in genetic diversity. Historically important and heritage areas. areas close to breeding and spawning grounds to fish and other marine life. creeks and backwaters.Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Rules 2011.

• Only 12 mangrove species are found in the Americas. . The greatest mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia.Mangroves around the world • The countries with the largest area of mangroves are: 1) Indonesia 2) Brazil 3) Australia 4) Nigeria 5) Mexico • Estimates of mangrove diversity indicate that there are 16-24 families and 54-75 species worldwide. with 4 of these occurring along portions of the SE USA (Florida) coast.

The area is flooded with brackish water during high tides which mix with freshwater from inland rivers.km. It lies in south-east of Calcutta .000 sq.Sundarban Forest • • • • • • The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world 300 species of trees and herbs 425 species of wildlife including the Royal Bengal Tiger exist. of mangrove forest and water (of which some 40% is in India and the rest in Bangladesh) It is a part of the world‟s largest delta (80. km. • • • . Brahmaputra and Meghna. The three sanctuaries are intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways. the Ganges.) formed from sediments deposited by three great rivers. mud flats. It covers some 10. The Sundarbans has experienced balanced growth of flora and fauna in association with the fresh water of the Ganges and the salty sea water of the Bay of Bengal. small islands of salt tolerant mangrove forests.000 sq.

• It is classified moist tropical seral forest.262 sq. • Tidal waves are a regular phenomenon and may be up to 7.km.km.5m high • About half of the Sundarbans is under water and the rest of the landscape • Rainfall is heavy and humidity high (80% on average) due to proximity of the Bay of Bengal.320 sq. of which 2. comprising beach forest and tidal forests. is forest and the rest is water and it is called Sundarban. . locally known as „sundari‟.• The Sundarbans mangrove area of India and Bangladesh when taken together forms one of the world‟s largest single patches. • The entire mangrove forest extends over an area of 4.

• Climate change due to global warming is predicted to cause an annual temperature rise of 0.• This mangrove forest generally bears the salt-tolerant forest ecosystem excepting some amongst which about 856. These phenomena will result in an increase in salinity and a decrease in the sweet water flow in the Sundarbans.7 million Sundari (Heritiera fomes) trees are less salt-tolerant. . • The sea level is also predicted to rise by 4 millimetres every year. • But the balance is now being threatened and siltation is increasing due to decreasing downstream flow of rivers running through and around.4 degrees Celsius in Bangladesh and result in greater frequency and intensity of cyclonic storms.

this area was declared a bird sanctuary under the Wildlife (Protection) Act. Some 178 ha of the best mangrove area at Chorao. Goa has been declared as Reserved Forest under the Indian Forest Act. . • In 1988. the mangrove area is 500 ha having declined sharply from a recorded 20 000 ha in 1987. • Afforestation work to restore degraded mangrove areas started in Goa in 1985-1986. 1927 to protect and conserve the mangrove forests.Goa Mangroves • Out of Goa‟s total land area of 370000ha. • By the end of 1996-1997 the programme had covered 876 ha. 1972.

• In 1987. . of which 23 400 ha or 23.Andaman and Nicobar islands • It comprise 572 islands in the Bay of Bengal. The coastline is about 1 962 km. • The Middle Andaman Islands comprise an area of 99 800 ha.4 percent are covered with mangroves • Limited extraction did not cause any damage to the government mangrove forests. with a total area of about 825 000 ha. the Andaman and Nicobar Administration has banned extraction of mangrove wood due to growing awareness about conservation of mangroves. but in the revenue areas (areas managed in such a way as to allow local people to benefit from extraction of forest products) the destruction of mangroves is conspicuous. The area under mangroves is 96 600 ha (Government of India. 1997).

•Mumbra . •Versova. . •Thane Creek.Bandra.Diva •and few more places. •Siwari. •Mahim . •Manori and Malad.Mangroves in mumbai Major mangroves are seen today in Mumbai are •Vasai Creek.

millions of citizens in Mumbai pass these hardy plants imagining they are little more than dirty.Importance of Mangroves for Mumbai • Mangroves represent the spirit of Mumbai – they are plucky survivors. muddy weeds growing pointlessly along the shoreline. • But each day. • Mangroves maintain the integrity of Mumbai‟s shoreline • The Koli community in Mumbai worships mangroves .

pollution and increasing population of Mumbai has resulted into degradation of mangroves. • Mumbai High Court has ordered freeze on destruction of mangrove forests in Maharashtra and has banned construction within 50 metres of them . Vasai Creek towards north and Thane Creek toward south where luxuriant mangrove patches are still left. • There are two important creeks. industrialization.Mangrove Destruction in Mumbai • Rapid developments like housing.

• Residents associations & NGOs in Mumbai are coming together to spread this awareness .• Protection is possible only through the participation of the local community and by building up pressure groups for ensuring management of this ecosystem and strict implementation of the legal provisions by the Government.

Threats to Mangrove ecosystem • Land reclamations for construction activity. agriculture. aquaculture. tourism • • Industrial and domestic pollution Port development • Dumping of all kinds of waste and debris • • Deforestation for fuel wood Over harvesting of marine resources .

Recommendations • The existing forest rules should be strictly enforced to mangroves in order to avoid exploitation. • Coastal Area development should be associated with mangrove‟s land. . • Conversion of mangrove lands for other purpose must be strictly prohibited. • Collection of mangrove products may be regulated by appropriate rules. watch and ward of wetland ecosystems. • Budgetary provisions may be provided in the maritime states for surveillance.

• Mangroves should be a part of curriculum/syllabus of education at various levels. . • A forestation program may be maintained for transplantation in the appropriate areas. • Awareness campaign on conservation and management of mangroves. • National Policy on mangrove ecosystem management may be strengthened/ formulated for protection of mangroves. Universities and similar agencies.• Regular monitoring of the state of art of mangroves by government organization.

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