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NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LIMITED

SELECTION OF BOILER AND ITS AUXILIARIES

PRESENTATION BY PROJECT ENGINEERING


PANKAJ KR GUPTA

SELECTION OF BOILER

TYPE OF BOILER
Based on steam parameter- Subcritical/ Supercritacal Based on steam/ water circuit-Once throuh/ drum type Based on air/ flue gas path- Tower/Two Type of fuel- Coal fired/ oil fired

path/ T-type

Type of draft systemType of burner arrangement- Tangential/Front/ opposed Selection of Firing system- Type of mills Single reheat/ double reheat Type of water wall tube- Plain, rifled Type of tubing arrangement- Spiral/ straight

SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY Technology Advancement Thermal efficiency improvement Supercritical plant - world wide trend Availability Manufacturers Major differences wrt subcritical Environmental Aspects Advantages Trends in steam parameters TECHNO ECONOMIC STUDY

Base price estimate Efficiency gain Selection of parameters for study Techno economic evaluation - Alternatives & Factors Indeterminants Technology cost Conclusions

PART-I

SUPERCRITICAL TECHNOLOGY

Evolution Of The Coal Fired Plant


60 AGMCFC IGMCF USPCF IGCC

50

Thermal Efficiency (%)

40

Supercritical boiler Rankine Barrier SUPC

IGHAT

PFBC

30

20

Pulverised Coal

10 First Station 0

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

SUPCF: Sub Critical Pulverised Coal Fired PFBC: Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion IGCC: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGHAT: Integrated Gasification Humid Air Turbine USPCF: Ultra Super Critical Pulverised Coal Fired IGMCFC: Integrated Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell AGMCFC: Advanced Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

2020

Rankine Cycle Efficiency


net work n = -------------Qin

Cycle thermal efficiency is improved by increasing the mean temperature of heat addition process. This temperature is increased because the boiler inlet pressure sets the saturation temperature in Rankine cycle.
Total fuel input Heat Rate =-----------------Electrical generation (KW) 860 = ------------------- Kcal/Kwh n

EFFECT OF SUPERCRITICAL PARAMETERS

240 kg/cm2

Expansion Line
170 kg/cm2

Critical Point 225 kg/cm2

Condensation

Enthalpy

THERMAL EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

%
0.41 Efficiency Increase 0.32 5660C/5930C 0.33 5660C/5660C 5380C/5660C 5380C/5380C 6000C/6000C

5660C/5660C

0.35
0.27

0.69
Base Efficiency 38.6%

169

246

310

STEAM PRESSURE (kg/cm2)

SUPERCRITICAL PLANTS-WORLDWIDE TRENDS

90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000

Total Steam Capacity

Supercritical plants

1968

1971

1974

1977

1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

CALENDER YEAR

2013

Source ABB

TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION STATUS


FINLAND CUBA THAILAND TAIWAN NETHERLANDS SPAIN ITALY IRAN DENMARK CHINA KOREA GERMANY JAPAN USA CIS

Estimated World Total 600 Units

50 1950s

Number of Units
1960s 1970s

100

150

200 1990s

250

1980s

AVAILABILITY : SUPERCRITICAL VS SUBCRITICAL EPRI


EAF 1982-84

Low availability in 1960s: Rapid unit size escalation Low fuel quality tolerance Inflexibility for cyclic loading
1993 82.0 89.8 1994 83.8 83.0 1995 83.7 84.7 1996 86.6 79.5 1997 88.5 90.3 1998 84.4 84.0

Size Range Sub-critical

300-399 400-499 500-599 600-799 800+ 76.5 77.4 76.3 78.5 77.2 74.6 73.8 74.2 75.6

VGB
Year Subcritical Supercritical

Super critical 64.4

1988 84.2 80.2

1989 82.5 74.9

1990 84.1 84.2

1991 84.9 85.2

1992 84.5 87.1

JEPIC/FEPC Data- Supercritical units higher than subcritical units EPDC Experience- EPDC own plants do not show any difference. CIS CountriesRussian units have high availability.

Report Concludes -No difference in availability with . present day design.

SUPPLIERS OF SUPERCRITICAL PLANT


BOILER B&W, USA ABB-CE MHI, JAPAN PODOLSK, RUSSIA FOSTER WHEELER, USA IHI, JAPAN ANSALDO, ITALY TAGANROG, RUSSIA BABCOCK HITACHI, JAPAN STEIN MULLER, GERMANY STEIN INDUSRIE, FRANCE EVT, GERMANY DEUTCHE BABCOCK, GERMANY MBEL, U.K.

TURBINE
GE,USA LMZ, RUSSIA WESTING HOUSE, USA TOSHIBA, JAPAN ABB, GERMANY HITACHI, JAPAN MHI, JAPAN ANSALDO, ITALY SIEMENS AG

SUPERCRITICAL PLANT BOILER TECHNOLOGY STATUS

Type Benson/ Siemens

Construction Spiral wound Smooth tubing Vertical Ribbed tubing Spiral wound Smooth tubing Vertical Ribbed tubing

Manufacturer Stien/EVT Stienmuller Deustche Babcock Under Indroduction CE, IHI, MHI ABB-CE MHI B&W, Foster Wheeler IHI, Hitachi Babcock Taganrog & Podolsk

Remarks Suitable for variable pressure operation Technology licenced by Siemens Suitable for sliding pressure operation Vertical tube design developed jointly by Sulzer/CE/MHI Used primary in USA and CIS countries

European Design

Sulzer

Universal Vertical Pressure bare tubing type

American Design

MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN SUPERCRITICAL PLANT

Boiler Type Furnace Water walls Tube material Tubing dia Circulation Pressure Parts

Supercritical Once through, Single/ Two pass

-Spiral bare tubing -Vertical bare/rifled tubing -Low alloy steel -31-38 mm -Forced once thru -Increase in thickness of tubing -Increase use of Stainless steel and P-91 material in SH/RH -Drain to condenser -Recirculation thru pump -Drain with regenerative heating Higher

Startup system

Start up rate

Load following capability Better Tolerance to coal quality Higher

MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN SUPERCRITICAL PLANT

Critical Piping Main Steam piping Size Thickness Material HRH piping Size Thickness Material Feed piping

Supercritical Reduction in diameter due to lower specific volume Increase in thickness Change in material P-22/X-20 to P-91

No change in dia No change in thickness due to P41 material Change in material from P-22, X-20 to P-91 Increase in thickness

MATERIAL APPLICATION FOR HIGH STEAM TEMPERATURES COMPONENT BOILER SH HDR MS PIPE 538 C
2 1/4 Cr Mo 18 Cr steel 2 1/4 Cr Mo steel 9 Cr steel 2 1/4Cr M V steel 2 1/4 Cr Mo steel 18 Cr steel 12 Cr steel 12 Cr steel

566 C
9 Cr steel

593 C
12 Cr steel 20-25 Cr steel 9 Cr steel

SH TUBE (HOT PARTS)


RH HDR RH PIPE RH TUBE (HOT PARTS) TURBINE HP/IP ROTOR HP/IP CASING MAIN VALVE

2 1/4 Cr Mo steel

9 Cr steel

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Reduction in CO2, SO2 and NOx between 1.79% to 4.24%
Reduction for 500 MW at 68.5% PLF per year is - CO2 78300 tons - SO2 365 tons - Nox 71 tons

STEAM CONDITION DEVELOPMENT TREND


(EUROPE)

SUBCRITICAL

SUPERCRITICAL

ULTRA SUPERCRITICAL
382-700/720

285-630/650 285-600-620

245-580/600 Super critical 245/540/540 245/546/565 Subcritical 170 K/540oC/540o

Mature Technology
1960s

Mature Technology

R&DCurrent USC Market Introduction

R&DAdvanced USC

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

2010s

Year

SELECTION OF RATED PARAMETER

246-538/538

246-538/566

246-566/566

300-580/580

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO OF UNITS (%)

SELECTED PARAMETERS

MSP
MST RST

246 kg/cm2
5380C 5660C

MAIN CONCLUSION
Technology - Mature and establish Availability - Same as sub-critical Project Implementation- Essentially same as sub-critical O&M - By & large same as sub-critical Reduced Environmental Impact Most preferred parameters- 246 Kg/cm2-538oC/566oC Materials proven and already in use Technology cost for Indian OEM is not possible to assess.

Mode of Operation Sliding pressure Constant pressure


Selection of steam parameter SH pressure, temperature RH pressure, temperature Rating of boiler (BMCR) SH flow RH flow Means of SH/RH Temperature Control Spray Gas biasing damper Burner tilt Start up system

Sliding pressure V/s Constant pressure


In sliding operation, turbine inlet valves remains fully open during normal operation. As a result the live.

Advatages
lower thermal stresses

The control range of the reheater final steam is extended.


Reduce pressure level at low loads prolong the life span of plant components. Overall reduction in power consumption

Disadvantages No storage in the drum hence for any load change difficult to meet requirement immediately. Modified sliding pressure operation with active turbine valves .

Pressure Operation Mode


280 260 240

Pressure(bar)

220 200 Constant pressure mode 180 160 140 30 50 70 Boiler Load (%) 90 110 Sliding pressure Modified Sloding pressure

BOILER DESIGN
The design of boiler requires proper selection from a number of major options. The most important of these options which have significant impact on the design are:

Waterwall system design


Arrangement of convective surfaces

LOAD VS PRESSURE
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 LOAD 80 100 120

PRESSURE

Thermal behaviour of water walls The proportion of heat needed for evaporation and superheating changes with load. At low load the heat required for evaporation is high and superheat the steam is small. In subcritical the evaporation end point is fixed. In once through boiler, the evaporation end point is also changing within the waterwalls. So there is no division between superheater and evaporator.
3500

Enthalpy Vs Boler Load

SH outlet WW outlet h

3000

Enthalpy (Kj/Kg)

2500

2000

1500

WW Inlet ECO inlet

1000

500 20 40 60 Boiler Load (%) 80 100

26144

18256

PENDANT SH (SH I) 21,253

PLATEN SH (SH II)

FINAL RH (RH II)

FINAL SH (SH III)

PENDANT RH (RH I-I)

15860

15 o

HORIZONTAL REHEATER(RH I) HORIZONTAL REHEATER(RH I) HORIZONTAL REHEATER(RH I)

30 o
8000 50 o

ECONOMIZER

31186

22,753

ECONOMIZER

ECONOMIZER FW = 18,816 FD = 18,144 ECONOMIZER

CL Top Nozzle

14,612

CL Bottom Nozzle 4,877

50
o

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