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'Looking good and subtitle fine’ Click to edit Mastersoundingstyle
First conceived by Warhurst et al. (2000)
refers to employees bodies being organizationally produced or ‘made up’ to embody the desired aesthetic of the organization and intended to provide for organizational benefit. Embodied capacities and attributes are, to some extent, possessed by workers at the point of entry into employment. ... And then....
selection.Aesthetic Labour Employers ◦ then. training and management. and commodify these embodied dispositions through processes of recruitment. transforming them into ‘skills’ which are geared towards producing a ‘style’ of service encounter that appeals to the senses of the customer (Nickson et al. develop.. mobilize. 3/26/12 .. 2001).
“If emotions have been discovered to be here. heralding the age of look and feel.127) argues that (see Felstead et al.. suggests that. there and everywhere in the workplace the same might now be said for aesthetics” Postrell (2003 p. .. “we are at a tipping point into an ‘aesthetic economy’... 2005: p.The Age Of Look And Feel Employee appearance is an integral feature of this economy ◦ Bolton (2000). how employees look can be as much a part of the atmosphere [of 3/26/12 companies] as the grain of the furniture or the . “When style is strategy.7896).
firm moustache.Employee appearance Long an important consideration for employers.2034). and also good appearance in the absence of any notable ugliness... iron-grey hair. ◦ C16th.. oval 3/26/12 .. disfigurement or deformity’ (Hopfl 2000. Model Banker . ◦ C19th.. p. aquiline nose...senior banker described as being ‘handsome’ with ‘hazel eyes. Society of Jesus – selected priests with ‘a pleasing manner of speech and verbal facility.
Not Just ‘Good Looking’ – The ‘Right Look’ Aesthetic labour is a key feature of employees’ wage effort bargaining. ◦ Like emotional labour different ‘looks’ can be required of employees throughout their aesthetic labouring by different organisations who are targeting different market segments (Hochschild 1983. Pettinger 2004; Warhurst 3/26/12 .
Is Employee Appearance Critical? 2004 survey of UK retail employers revealed: ◦ 90 per cent rated employee appearance as critical or important in recruitment and selection. 61 per cent offered training in dress sense and style. 56 per cent provided other appearance training including in employee body language 3/26/12 ◦ ◦ .
Thoughts.. Warhurst and Nickson.???? Grugulis et al. (2004) ◦ "there is an increasing tendency for organisations to manage the way their employees feel and look as well as the way they behave. 2001). Macdonald and Sirianni. 3/26/12 . 1996. 1983. so that work is emotional and aesthetic as well as (or instead of) productive (Hochschild..
Embodiment in the emotional labour literature embodiment is continually debated: ◦ i.e. revealing how employee appearance. not just feelings. are organizationally appropriated.” Aesthetic labour showcase embodiment. Hochschild’s (1983: 7) core definition of emotional labour as: ‘the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display. transmuted and controlled for commercial benefit. 3/26/12 ◦ .
2001 This development is particularly true of interactive services. such as retailing.Personal Characteristics In customer-facing occupations employers stressing the importance of prospective employees' personal characteristics ◦ Some now specify personal characteristics in lists of ‘skills’ they require Thompson et al. where recruitment and training both focus on the emotions and aesthetics of the labour force deployed to deliver the service ◦ 3/26/12 ..
waitress or retail assistant are part of what makes the service being offered trendy and upmarket “ 3/26/12 . What Makes The Service Better? Nickson ◦ et al. deportment.7 “In the ‘style’ labour market of fashionable hotels and bars the appearance.. accents and general stylishness of the bartender. 2001 p.
. XYZ company are “. clever. looking for people who are "passionate. 2001. successful and well-travelled” ◦ ???? 3/26/12 .Significance of this practice? (Warhurst ◦ and Nickson.14).. stylish. p. confident. tasty.
but complained: 'they just won't smile.What are the consequences of this trend? The personnel manager of a hotel was implementing changes in working practices aimed at the reception staff.' ◦ There are issues here around the extent to which attributes are seen as separate from the person – and as ‘skills’ to be developed. 3/26/12 .
. 2001 Staff have to look good and sound right and Recruitment and selection processes must try to ensure that they do 3/26/12 .Look Good And Sound Right Nickson ◦ ◦ et al.
Workplaces ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ as diverse as call centres. training consultants.” Nickson et al. investment banks accountants all recruit.. manner.Other Service Sectors But it is not only in this front of house environment that grooming. 2001 p8... train and promote staff on their 3/26/12 . tone and accent of voice and shape and size of body become vital. deportment. dress sense.
Right Skills’...‘Right Image Vs.. If an employer is essentially looking for someone who will project the ‘right image’. many people does this rule out. irrespective of the skills they possess??? How 3/26/12 .
possession is a new facet of what it can mean to be ‘skilled’" Their Warhurst and Nickson (2001) Grugulis et al. are open to development and improvement through instruction. p. Personality Training? Many of these characteristics..7) 3/26/12 . (2004.
Jewellery 3/26/12 Shoes ... Length of their skirts Hairstyles. Weight Size of bust. Language Clothing Body posture..Managers may seek to control employees’.. Makeup Perfume Way that they shave (both faces and legs). hips. thighs.
misbehave ignore these instructions.. ◦ ◦ ◦ 3/26/12 . enthuse. 1991). 1999.Employee Perspectives Employees ◦ ◦ ◦ can and do resist. co-operate comply with them (Ackroyd and Thompson.. Paules. Or.
Thompson and McHugh. ? 3/26/12 . employees’ feelings and appearance are turned into commodities and re-shaped to fit their employers’ notions of what is desirable (Putnam and Mumby. 2002). 1993. ◦ Such detailed demands suggest that it is not only the changing definition of skill that is problematic but the site of its control... Re-shaping Emotions In emotional and aesthetic labour.
Lead to exhaustion. Be enjoyed by employees and may equip them with skills that advantage them both in and out of the workplace (Leidner. 1993... 2004. pp7-8) . 1. 2. Grugulis et al. burnout (Hochschild. 1983. 1992). 1995) 3/26/12 4. Kunda.. Cause an inability to accept or engage with emotions in the private sphere (Casey. This process can... Cause high levels of turnover .. 2001). 3. Nickson et al..
80).. maleness and traditional middle-class" (Ainley 1994. p. Grugulis et al. grooming. 3/26/12 . (2004) conclude.. and . selfconfidence. ◦ “the particular skills in personal presentation.. ◦ "at rock bottom. deportment and accent that Glaswegian service sector employers are seeking are liable to be linked to the parental social class.. (2003 p. and family and educational background of the job applicants" (Nickson et al. the real personal and transferable skills required for preferential employment are those of whiteness. 10).
References: Ackroyd. Degrees of Difference. (1999) Organizational Misbehaviour.. London: Lawrence and Wishart. and Thompson. F. Ainley. (1994). London: Sage. P. 3/26/12 . P. S. Anderson-Gough. Grey.
(1996) ‘Shadow mothers: nannies. C. au pairs. Leidner.L. (1992) Engineering Culture: control and commitment in a High-Tech corporation. C.L. and invisible work’ in Macdonald. C. . Fast Talk: service work and the routinization of everyday life Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (1993) Fast Food. R.References (2) Kunda. (eds. and Sirianni.) Working in the Service Society Philadelphia: 3/26/12 Temple University Press. Macdonald. G.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press. emotions and the myth of rationality’ in Fineman. and Mumby. D.References (3) Paules.) Emotion in Organisations London: Sage. L. (1993) ‘Organisations. Thompson.K. P.. G. Putnam. and McHugh. C. (1991) Dishing it Out: power and resistance among waitresses in a New Jersey restaurant. and Callaghan. P.F. G. (2002) Work Organisations: a critical introduction 3rd edition Basingstoke: Palgrave. Thompson. Warhurst. 3/26/12 (2001) ‘Ignorant Theory and Knowledgeable . D. (ed. S.
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