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History-> The word paper derives from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. The soda process for making pulp from wood was developed by Watt & Burgess in 1851. NSSC pulping yields highest fibers up to 65%-80% which results in reduced stream pollution problems. But quality and bleachability is low. Types-> Chemical pulp is of three types 1) Kraft or Sulfate Pulp (Alkaline) 2) Sulfite Pulp (Acid) 3) Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical (NSSC) Pulp Density->The density of paper ranges from 250 kgm-3 (16 lbft-3) for tissue paper to 1500 kgm-3 (94 lbft-3) for some specialty paper. Printing paper is about 800 kgm-3 (50 lbft-3). In BILT, Unit: Kraft Process is employed for pulping. Veneer, Veneer chips, Bamboo, Poplar wood and Poplar rulla, Eucalyptus wood & rulla etc. are the raw materials used in that unit due to their easily availability in nearby areas
.INTRODUCTION : Recovery of chemicals has always been considered as the backbone of pulp and paper industry in the phase of increase of pulping chemicals. Strict laws of pollution control and power crisis arising from mushrooming of industries the recovery of pulping chemicals has become more important.
NaOH and Na2CO3 formed from the sulfate during preparation and recovery of the cooking liquor. The material added to the cooking liquor for the Kraft process is Na2SO4. o All sorts of wood can be cooked by the Kraft process and the fibers produced are bleachable and strong. hence the common name of sulfate process.THE KRAFT PROCESS INTRODUCTION: o Kraft process is one of the main chemical pulping . o Kraft or sulfate pulping is an alkaline process . reducing or even eliminating stream pollution. soda recovery . o It is very important that the chemicals used can be recovered and recycled. o It is cooked with a strong (12%) solution of NaOH and Na2CO3. o The cooking however is done with a solution containing Na2S.
Flow sheet of Kraft Process soda recovery .
10. 17. 24. 22. 30. 4. 26.ABBREVIATIONS USED: 1. 5. 2. 25. 31. 7. Chipper House Chip Silo Digester Blow Tank Brown Stock Chest Pulp Washers Degassing Tank Stock Tank Knitters. 13. 3. 29. 34. 18. 32. 6. 21. To Sewer Condensate Strong B/L Storage Recovery Boilers ESP & Chimney Smelt Dissolving Tanks G/L Storage Tank G/L Clarifier Stationary Slaker Causticizing Tanks W/L Clarifier Mud Washers W/L Storage Tank Vacuum Drum Filter Lime Kiln Dregs Producer Gas Plant soda recovery . 9. Rifflers and Screens Beater Jordan Head Box Fourdrinier Dryer Calendar Stack Finished Paper Roll Weak B/L Storage Multiple Effect Evaporators Steam Line 20. 15. 11. 16. 35. 19. 36. 28. 33. 8. 12. 14. 27. 23.
5% solution of NaOH. Temperature 170 to 176˚C. Strong brown bag. Cooking conditions : Time 2-5 hours. : Brown color.6% NaOH. strong fibers. paperboards and liquid containers.1% Na2S.Pulping Procedures in Kraft Process Cellulosic raw material Principal reaction in the digester Composition of cooking liquor : Almost any kind of wood. gumming paper.soft/hard : Hydrolysis of lignin to alcohols and acids : 12. Pressure 660-925kPa. Na2S. 58. building paper. resistant to mechanical refining. 27. 14. : through burning of organic matter dissolved in the liquor from the wood. Chemical Recovery Material of construction Pulp characteristics : can be made of mild steel or stainless.3% Na2CO3. Paper products soda recovery : . difficult to bleach. strong white paper.
Na2CO3 is present as are also small amounts of Na2SO4. At the same time the following reaction takes place: Na2SO4 + 2C Na2S + 2CO2 The carbon comes from the organics in the wood. the carbon burned away and the inorganic chemicals melted. burned and limed. silica and traces of lime. Organic sulfur compounds are presented in combination with sodium sulfide.RECOVERY OF THE BLACK LIQUOR The B/L removed from the pulp washer contains 95 to 98% of the total chemicals charged to the digester. Fe2O3. Total solids usually average about 20%. alumina and potash. In the smelting furnace any remaining organic compounds are broken down. soda recovery . salt. Then black liquor is concentrated.
Soda Recovery-Flow Diagram: soda recovery .
Soda Recovery sub-sections: Evaporator Section Boiler Section Causticizing Plant Lime Kiln Producer Gas Plant soda recovery .
In this section there are mainly two types of evaporators. The black liquor is concentrated with the help of evaporators.In this section black liquor is concentrated to a required concentration and sent to the recovery boilers for heat recovery & formation of green liquor. soda recovery . one is free flow falling film evaporator (FFFF) and other is short tube vertical effect evaporators (STVE).
FORCED-CIRCULATION EVAPORATORS: soda recovery .
Most commonly used :central well or down-take soda recovery . usually of cast iron.2 to 1. which are usually 50.SHORT-TUBE VERTICAL EVAPORATORS: Principal use :evaporation of canesugar juice.8 m (4 to 6 ft) long.8 to 76. Heating surface is induced by boiling in the tubes. Body: vertical cylinder.2 mm (2 to 3 in) in diameter by 1. so there must be a return passage from above the top tube sheet to below the bottom tube sheet. and tubes are expanded into horizontal tube sheets Circulation rate through the tubes is many times the feed rate.
At both of these boilers B/L is fired to recover the heat content of the spent cooking liquor in form of production of high pressure steam. This smelt is then dissolved in weak white liquor coming from Causticizing Plant. The main aim of these boilers is to recover all unused chemicals from the B/L stream in form of G/L. This G/L contains some solid impurities which are separated out by means of a clarifier. Chemical composition of G/L is as follows: Na2CO3 (70%). NaOH (15%). Na2S(15%) soda recovery . G/L).ROLE OF RECOVERY BOILERS Feed . The lignin in the liquor is burnt away and what remain are the chemicals (in the form of smelt). which gives a characteristic green color (hence called green liquor.concentrated B/L coming from the evaporators.
Recovery Boilers soda recovery .
RECOVERY BOILERS: TYPES ABL boiler soda recovery JMW boiler .
all are retractable type only 5 are retractable type and rest of 17 are non-retractable Automatic soot blowing Soot blowing is done manually taken from the steam produced by itself uses steam produced by other soot-blowing boiler for the same Two are used one is used four pumps being used. two for recirculation two to serve both the purposes and two for transferring liquor to Causticizing Plant soda recovery .Differences b/w ABL & JMW Boilers Points Firing ABL wall firing at the bottom after the ESP & gives fine gases to chimney centre base at the top JMW smelt Dissolving tank agitator FD fan sump pump soot blowers Steam used for ESP Pumps before the ESP & gives fine gases to ESP used for mixing salt cake for better mixing same mixing tank is used for mixing of two both ESP ash & salt cake.
Na2S(15%) soda recovery . Lime is transferred from lime bin. In the slaker causticizing reaction is completed around 80-90%. G/L is screened over the storage tank to separate solids. consists of-> causticizers. clarifiers. Lime is introduced in the slaker where G/L meets it from the splitter box in the slaker by two lines one in head and another in tale. The slaking reaction is as follows:CaO + H2O Ca (OH) 2 + Heat (486 Btu/lb) The resultant Ca(OH)2 reacts with sodium carbonate to form NaOH this reaction is called causticizing reaction: Ca (OH) 2 + Na2CO3 2NaOH + CaCO3 Na2CO3(15%). Clarified green liquor from the storage is supplied to splitting box. Process-> G/L at 500-600˚C from the smelt dissolving tank is pumped to raw G/L storage tank. mud washers. The temperature is always kept at 95-100˚C so that slaking and causticizing reaction may take place in the causticizer tanks at desired rate. Screened G/L is allowed to fall in a clarifier to separate out dregs. filters. dreg washers and grit classifiers etc.CAUSTICIZING PLANT: Purpose-> To convert available Na2CO3 in useful NaOH by reacting it with Ca(OH)2 thus converting the supplied G/L into W/L in a number of steps. NaOH(70%).
810 m3 280 m3 (Both) 165 m3 (All) 150 ton 650 m3(New).Details of Causticizing Plant Daily G/L intake (ABL) G/L clarifier capacity Storage tank capacity Lime bin capacity W/L clarifier capacity (Old) New mud washers capacity Steam line used for heating Dryness of mud after filter Daily lime consumption Number of clarifiers Number of mud washers Filter type filter Production(W/L ) Temperature in each step soda recovery : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 510 m3 (JMW). 400 m3 565 m3 (Both) 3 Kgcm-2 & 7 Kgcm-2 64% 77 ton 4 4 Rotary vacuum drum 855 m3 per day 90-110˚C .
Basic reaction that takes place inside a lime kiln is as follows: CaCO3 CaO + H2O + Δ soda recovery . one ESP and an ID fan. one lime kiln. lime kiln. ESP and chimneys etc In this unit we have one filter (Rotary Vacuum Drum Filter type).LIME KILN Basically consists of : mud filters.
5 m 200-250˚C 900-1000˚C 150 ton per day 80-82 % 65-68 % 0.2 % 0.Constructional & working details Length Diameter Feed end temperature Outlet zone temperature Feed rate Average CaO in lime prepared from kin Dryness of mud % CaO in mud at feed end % free NaOH in mud at feed end Daily oil consumption Kiln speed Kiln motor speed Inlet & outlet draught for ESP : : : : : : : : : : : : : 55 m 2.4 % 6000 m3 0.667 rpm 1300-1400 rpm 12mmWC & 120mmWC soda recovery .
soda recovery .PRODUCER GAS PLANT: Producer Gas (PG) is made by passing air stream through a bed of hot coal or coke.18 MJ/ Kmol) PG thus produced is used in lime kiln as fuel.9 MJ/ Kmol) (ΔH1000˚C= +135. the exothermic energy from the reaction between C and O2 to supply the endothermic reaction between the C and steam: C + Air CO2 + C C + H2O CO + H2O CO2 + N2 2CO CO + H2 CO2+ H2 (ΔH1000˚C= -395. Steam pressure helps in maintaining axial flame length while oil atomization controls radial flame spread.4 MJ/ Kmol) (ΔH1000˚C= +167.7 MJ/ Kmol) (ΔH1000˚C= -32. Temperature of the fuel bed depends on the fusion point of the fuel ash is to use up as much as possible.
PRODUCER GAS PLANT-Few details Coal feed rate LCT-1 temperature LCT-2 temperature Furnace jacket temperature Blast Saturation Temperatur Blast Air pressure Gas flow rate Air flow rate LCT-2 pressure Steam pressure CO leakage level Gas outlet temperature Daily tar production soda recovery : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 ton per day 135˚C 142˚C 75˚C 55˚C 280 mmWC 2730 m3/hour 1170 m3/hour 125 mmWC 0.4 Kgcm-2 10-250ppm 106˚C 1200 liter .
soda recovery .
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