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Science process skills book page S11 Science form 2 texts book page 49

- The process of breaking down large food molecule into smaller molecules that can be readily absorb by the body.
- occurs in an eight metre long tube called gut/alimentary canal.

Physical digestion - involve the mechanical process of breaking down large piece of food into smaller particles using teeth and churning movements.

Chemical digestion
- involves the action of various enzymes in breaking down complex food molecules. - enzymes are substance act as catalyst and generally speed up the chemical reaction in our body.

The parts of the digestive system

Mouth Oesophagus

Large Intestine Anus

Small Intestine

The flow of food particles in alimentary canal





Large Intestine

Small Intestine


The end product of digestion 1. glucose from carbohydrate 2. amino acids from protein 3. fatty acids and glycerol from fats.

Digestion begin in the mouth Food is chewed into smaller pieces and mixed with saliva secreted by the salivary glands. Small pieces of food have a larger area for the saliva to act upon. The salivary gland secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase. Amylase digests starch and converts it to maltose, a type of sugar.

The digest food is is shaped into a bolus by the tongue and swallowed. The bolus is pushed to the stomach

Absorption of digested food

Small intestine is well adapted for the absorption of digested food. The inner surface of the small intestine is highly folded and has millions of tiny finger-like projection called villi.

The villi greatly increase the surface of the small intestine so that absorption of digested food can take place quickly. Digested food is absorbed into the bloodstream mainly by diffusion.




All parts of the body

Reabsorption of water
Function of large intestine
Absorb water, dissolved minerals and vitamin Formation of faeces

Removal of faeces out of the body

Difficulty in removing undigested food from the body Due to unhealthy eating habits Too little fibre and water in diet

Helps the food pass easily through the digestive system Without roughage, undigested food moves very slowly through the large intestine.

Constipation can be relieved by drinking enough water, eating a high fibre diet.

Healthing eating habits

Unhealthy eating habit are the main cause of diet-related disease. The key to healthy eating is to eat a wide variety of foods according to correct amounts shown in the food pyramid.

Food pyramid

The following are some healthy eating habits a) from health aspect - maintain a balance diet - ensure the food consume is clean, safe, fresh and nutritious - consume less sugar and fat - eat plenty of vegetable and fruits - eat in moderation

b) From the religious point of view

- good eating habit is to respect one anothers choice of food. - some people are vegetarians and should not be served meat. - Muslim are forbidden to consume pork. - Hindus do not take beef. They should not be served beef.

Unhealthy eating habit will lead to many diet-related diseases.

Overweight/obese High blood cholesterol level & heart disease High blood pressure Diabetes