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Dr. Jamil Ahmed

www.pieas.edu.pk

Verily in the heavens and the earth, are Signs for those who believe.

إِنَّ فًِ السماوات واألرْ ض آل ٌَات ل ِْلمُؤمنٌِن َ ِ ْ ٍ َ ِ َ َ َّ ِ

And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith.

وفًِ خ ْلقكم وما ٌَبُث منْ دَ ابة آ ٌَات لِق ْوم ٌُوقنون ٍ َّ ِ ُّ َ ُِ ٍ َ ٌ َ َ ُِْ َ َ

ْ َ َ ٍ ْ ِ ِ ِ َ َّ َ َّ َ َ َ َ ِ َ َّ َ ِ ِواختِالفِ اللٌَّْل والنهار وما أَ ْنزل َّللاُ مِن السماء منْ رزق فأَحْ ٌَا به األرْ ض َبعْ دَ م ْوتها و َتصْ رٌف ِِ َ َِ َ َ ِ الرِّ ٌَاح آ ٌَات لِق ْوم ٌَعْ قلُون َ ِ ٍ َ ٌ ِ

And in the alternation of Night and Day, and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the change of the winds,- are Signs for those that are wise.

Such are the Signs of Allah, which We rehearse to thee in Truth; then in what exposition will they believe after (rejecting) Allah and His Signs?

ت ِْلك آ ٌَات َّللا َن ْتلُوها علٌَْك بالحق فبأَيِّ حدٌِث َبعْ دَ َّللا وآ ٌَاته ٌُؤمنون ٍ َ ِ َّ ُ َ ُ ِ ْ ِ ِ َ ِ َّ َ ِ َ ِّ َ ْ ِ َ َ َ َّ ِّ ُ ٌ َ و ٌْل لِكل أَفاكٍ أَثٌِم ٍ

Woe to each sinful dealer in Falsehoods:

He hears the Signs of Allah rehearsed to him, yet is obstinate and lofty, as if he had not heard them: then announce to him a Penalty Grievous! Al-Qur'an, 045.003-008 (Al-Jathiya)

© Dr. Jamil Ahmed

ُ ِ َّ ِ َ ِْ ٌَسْ مع آ ٌَات َّللا ت ْتلَى علَ ٌْه ثم ٌُصِ رُّ مُسْ َتكبرً ا كأَنْ لَم ٌَسْ معْ ها ف َبشرْ هُ بعذاب أَلٌِم ُ َ َّ ُ ِ َ ٍ ٍ َ َ ِ ِّ َ َ َ ْ

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www.pieas.edu.pk

Thermodynamics

A branch of Physics Thermodynamics = therme (heat) and dynamis (power) A science of energy A science of energy and entropy Deals with energy and energy transformations Deals with the conservation of energy (quantity) during transformations Deals with the direction of energy transformation processes (quality)

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© Dr. Jamil Ahmed

www.pieas.edu.pk

Jamil Ahmed www.edu.pieas.pk .Some Application Areas 4 © Dr.

edu.pk .pieas.Some Application Areas 5 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.

edu.pieas.pk .Some Application Areas 6 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.

Jamil Ahmed www.pieas.pk .Some Application Areas 7 © Dr.edu.

Jamil Ahmed www.Some Application Areas 8 © Dr.pk .pieas.edu.

A Thermodynamic System 9 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.edu.pieas.pk .

pieas.edu. Jamil Ahmed www. a control volume is chosen (a control boundary is drawn) such that it contains the devices and the matter under investigation Control mass with or without movable boundary 10 © Dr.A Thermodynamic System … comprises a device or a combination of devices containing a quantity of matter that is being studied To precisely define a thermodynamic system.pk .

pk .edu.A Thermodynamic System Open systems – Control Volume 11 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.pieas.

pieas.edu.pk .A Thermodynamic System Types of What can cross the boundary? thermodynamic Heat Work Mass systems Isolated System Closed System Open System No Yes Yes No Yes * Yes * No No Yes + Control volume Control mass * May have moving boundaries + May have imaginary boundaries 12 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.

e.. the time-averaged influence of many molecules).pieas. are: 1) STATISTICAL APPROACH: We deal with average values for all particles under consideration.edu. These effects can be perceived by our senses and measured by instruments (i.vs. so that the problem become manageable. Microscopic Approach To specify using the microscopic point of view: • Position of an atom: 3 coordinates • Velocity of an atom: 3 components 25 mm Atmospheric temperature and pressure 1020 atoms • Description of complete system requires: 6 1020 equations A COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGE! Monatomic gas 25 mm Two approaches to reduce the number of simultaneous equations. Example: pressure of a gas exerted on the walls of a container. Jamil Ahmed www. Macroscopic observations are completely independent of our assumptions regarding the nature of matter 13 © Dr. This is the approach used in kinetic theory and statistical mechanics 2) MACROSCOPIC VIEW: Here we are concerned with the gross or average effects of many molecules.Macro.pk .

Jamil Ahmed www.. in high-vacuum technology 14 © Dr.“Continuum” From the macroscopic point of view. This concept of “continuum” loses validity when the mean-free path of the molecules approaches the order of magnitude of the dimensions of the vessel.pk . we are always concerned with volumes that are very large compared to molecular dimensions.pieas. we can treat the substance as continuous. e.g. Because we are not concerned with the behavior of individual molecules.edu.

pk . pressure. separated by phase boundaries..u1 . temperature. etc. and these properties always have the same value for a given state. e. phases of water are ice. regardless of how the substance arrived at the state. P1 . each of the properties has only one definite value. in various states.Properties and State of a Substance A phase is defined as a quantity that is homogeneous throughout.. 15 © Dr.pieas.edu.. the substance may exist at various pressures and temperatures. or in thermodynamic terms.. water and vapor. In a given state. s1 . density. For example. 1 . More than one phase can coexist. In each phase. The state may be identified or described in terms of a unique set of certain observable macroscopic properties.g. Jamil Ahmed www. S1 T1 .

Properties of a System The term properties of system implies that some properties have significance for the entire system. P = Pv Water After some time Water After long time 16 © Dr. This is true especially when the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium Thermal equilibrium: there is no temperature differential through the system Mechanical equilibrium: there is no change in pressure in the system Phase equilibrium: the mass of each phase reaches an equilibrium level and stays there Chemical equilibrium: the chemical composition of the system does not change with time Vacuum t= 0. P > 0 Vapor. Jamil Ahmed www.pieas. P = 0 Water At t = 0 Vapor.edu.pk .

edu. An intensive property is independent of the mass. Extensive properties per unit mass are intensive properties Intensive Pressure Temperature Density Extensive Mass Total Volume 17 © Dr. whereas the value of an extensive property varies directly with the mass. Jamil Ahmed www.Intensive and Extensive Properties Two types of thermodynamic properties: intensive and extensive.pieas.pk .

A Simple Compressible System If we have a system where the gravitational. then this system is called a simple compressible system 18 © Dr.pk .edu. magnetic. Jamil Ahmed www. motion and surface tension effects are absent.pieas. electrical.

pk .The State Postulate The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent.edu. magnetic. an additional property needs to be specified for each effect that is significant. intensive properties Two properties are independent if one property can be varied while the other one is held constant The gravitational. electrical. motion and surface tension effects are usually negligible for most engineering problems. Otherwise. 19 © Dr.pieas. Jamil Ahmed www.

Jamil Ahmed www. To describe a process completely initial and final states as well as the path it follows. we say that a change in state has occurred. The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called a path The path of the succession of states through which the system passes is called the process.Processes and Cycles When properties of a system change.edu.pk . 20 © Dr. and the interactions with the surroundings should be specified A process with identical end states is called a cycle Process diagrams plotted by employing thermodynamic properties as coordinates are very useful in visualizing the processes.pieas.

Also called quasi-equilibrium process For non-equilibrium (non-ideal) processes. All the states the system passes through during a quasi-equilibrium process may be considered equilibrium states.pieas.Ideal and Non-ideal Processes State 2 Process path Intermediate states Ideal process: A process in which the deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimal. Jamil Ahmed www. however. we are able to describe certain overall effects that occur during the process. We are unable to specify each state through which the system passes. or the rate of the process.edu.pk . we are limited to a description of the system before the process occurs and after the process is completed and equilibrium is restored. P 20 State 1 V 20 pa 20 pa 20 pa 20 pa 20 pa (a) Slow compression (quasi-equilibrium) State 2 P 90 Non-equilibruim process ? 20 State 1 V 20 pa 90 pa 20 pa (b) Fast compression (non quasiequilibrium) 21 © Dr.

Jamil Ahmed www.pk .pieas.Thermodynamic vs. Mechanical Cycle 22 © Dr.edu.

is used to describe processes in which one property remains constant.edu.g. e.pieas. Isothermal: constant temperature Isobaric: constant pressure Isochoric: constant volume 23 © Dr.pk . Jamil Ahmed www.Iso-processes The prefix iso..

174 ft/s2 Length (meter.pk © Dr.pieas. 24 www.453 592 37 kg 1 lbf = 32. with the symbol L. 1983) Mass (kilogram.174 lbm 1 ft/s2 The SI units derived from proper nouns use capital letters for symbols. others use the lowercase letters. 1967) 1 N = 1 kg 1 m/s2 F=ma 1 ft = 0. (General Conference of Weights and Measures – CGPM.edu. Jamil Ahmed . g = 9.806 65 m/s2 = 32. s): One second is the time required for a beam of cesium-133 atoms to resonate 9 192 631 770 cycles in a cesium resonator. (CGPM. kg): The mass of a certain platinum-iridium cylinder maintained under prescribed conditions at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures 1 lbm = 0. Length. is an exception. Mass and Force Time (second.3048 m gravitational constant.Units of Time. m): One meter is the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1 / 299 792 458 of a second. The liter.

174 lbm × 1 ft/s2 1 lbm × 32. Jamil Ahmed www.67 1 lbf = 4.45359 kg Conversion 1 ft = 0.15 °C = (5/9) × (°F-32) K = (5/9) × °R 25 © Dr.pk .174 ft/s2 degree Fahrenheit (°F) Rankine (°R) °R = °F + 459. Mass and Force Dimensions Length Time Mass SI meter (m) second (s) kilogram (kg) EES foot/ feet (ft) second (s) pound-mass (lbm) 1 lbm = 0.edu.3048 m Force Unit Force newton (N) 1 kg × 1 m/s2 pound-force (lbf) 32. degree Celsius (°C) Kelvin (K) K = °C + 273.448 N Temperature Absolute Temp.pieas.Units of Time. Length.

26 © Dr. heat) From a molecular point of view. pressure) and the change in total energy that the water contains at any instant.pieas.. Jamil Ahmed www.edu. we are concerned only with the energy that is transferred as heat.pk .Energy A fundamental concept Energy is defined as the capability to produce an effect Energy can be stored within a system and can be transferred from one system to another (e. causing change in properties (temperature. energy is stored as: a) Intermolecular potential energy (forces between molecules) b) Molecular kinetic energy (translational velocity of individual molecules) c) Intramolecular energy (energy within the individual molecules) • Electronic energy • Nuclear energy • Rotational energy • Vibrational energy From the macroscopic point of view.g.

Jamil Ahmed www.edu. v Density: Mass per unit volume. As altitude increases. = 1/v Specific volume vary with location in the gravitational field.Specific Volume and Density Specific Volume: Volume per unit mass.pieas.pk . specific volume increases. Specific gravity: the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of some standard substance at specified temperature (usually water at 4 oC) 27 © Dr.

the term “stress” is applicable.pieas. UNITS 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 bar = 105 Pa = 0. For solids.Pressure The term pressure is applicable for liquids and gases.1 MPa 1 atm = 101 325 Pa = 14. Pressure is defined as the normal component of force per unit area.696 lbf/in2 28 © Dr. Jamil Ahmed www.pk .edu.

This pressure is fixed (determined) by the external force acting on the piston. Jamil Ahmed www. but the piston will move outwards to establish a force balance at a new equilibrium state.Gas Pressure and External Forces The pressure exerted by the gas on all its boundaries is the same (when the gas is in equilibrium state). 29 © Dr.edu.pk . if heat is supplied to the gas from the outside. since the internal (P×A) and the external forces (Fext) must be balanced for the piston to remain stationary. Alternately.pieas. the gas pressure will increase.

pk . and slightly above atmospheric. across an orifice) are measured using manometers containing water. Pressure below. Jamil Ahmed www.. and pressure differences (e. oil and other fluids. alcohol.pieas. Pgage Pabs Patm for pressure above Patm Pvac Patm Pabs for pressure below Patm 30 © Dr. mercury.edu.g.Absolute and Gauge Pressure Pressure and vacuum gauges read the difference between the absolute pressure and the atmospheric pressure existing at the gauge.

when they are in thermal communication. Because of these difficulties of defining temperature. Electrical resistance Physical dimensions Height of Hg column t=0 © Dr. We say that two bodies have equality of temperature if. and after sometime they both appear to attain a same level of hotness or coldness.pk . hot body gets colder and the cold body gets hotter. we define “equality of temperature”.Equality of Temperature Temperature is difficult to define exactly. no change in any observable property occurs. Our sense of hotness or coldness is very UNRELIABLE.edu. Sense of “hotness” or “coldness”.pieas. Jamil Ahmed t = t’ 32 www. when we touch an object. When a hot and a cold body are brought in contact.

If the thermometer is according to a standard measuring scale. Jamil Ahmed www. Note the thermometer reading No change in the thermometer reading Equality of temperature exists between the two blocks. both blocks are in thermal equilibrium with the thermometer 33 © Dr.edu. Therefore.The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that when two bodies have equality of temperature with a third body.pk . we can measure the temperature.pieas. they in turn have equality of temperature with each other.

pieas. The temperature of the Steam point is defined as the temperature of water and steam that is in equilibrium at a pressure of 1 atm.67 34 © Dr.Temperature Scales The temperature of the Ice point is defined as the temperature of a mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with saturated air at a pressure of 1 atm.edu. Jamil Ahmed www.pk .15 Rankine Scale: R = oF + 459. Fahrenheit Celsius Ice point 32 0 Steam Point 212 100 Absolute Scale: K = oC + 273.

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