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Bridge Loadings

Types of loads
Permanent Loads Transient Loads

Permanent Loads
DC = dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments down drag dead load of wearing surfaces utilities horizontal earth pressure load accumulated locked-in effects resulting from the process earth surcharge load vertical pressure from dead earth fill

DD = DW =
and

EH EL

= =

construction ES = EV = load of

Transient Loads BR = vehicular braking force CE = vehicular centrifugal force CR = creep CT = vehicular collision force EQ = earthquake FR = friction I M = vehicular dynamic load allowance LL = vehicular live load LS = live load surcharge PL = pedestrian live load SE = settlement SH = shrinkage TG = temperature gradient TU = uniform temperature WA = water load and stream pressure WL = wind on live load WS = wind load on structure

Types of loads contd.


Dead load shall include the weight of all components of the structure, appurtenances and utilities attached thereto, earth cover, wearing surface, future overlays, and planned widening. Dead load can usually be determined more accurately than any other type of loading. One major source of error is failure to consider some of the elements that will contribute to dead load. Some items that are often overlooked are:

Wearing surfaces Railings and Utilities Structure modifications not shown on plans

Other items that can affect the calculation of dead load are dimensional variations in the concrete section and variations in the unit weight of material. The prescribed dead load factor recognizes the uncertainties in the nominal dimensions and analysis of dead load effects. Overlay thicknesses are a source of greater uncertainty in the dead load so they are assigned a 20% higher load factor unless cores or more detailed measurements are made.

MATERIAL Bituminous Wearing Surfaces Cast Iron Cinder (volcanic stone) Filling Compacted Sand, silt, or Clay Concrete Loose Sand, Silt, or Gravel Soft Clay Rolled Gravel or Ballast

DENSITY (kg/m3) 2250 7200 960 1925 2400 1800 1700 2250

Force effect (kN/m3) 22.5 72 9.6 19.3 24 18 17 22.5

Steel
Stone Masonry Wood Hard Soft

7850
2725 960 800

79
27.3 9.6 8

Water

Fresh

1000

10

Live Loads
The guidelines specify the number of vehicles to be considered on the bridge at any one time. These numbers are based on an estimate of the maximum likely number of vehicles under typical traffic situations. When unusual conditions exist, adjustments to the specified number of vehicles should be made. Highway vehicles come in a wide variety of sizes and configurations. No single vehicle or load model can accurately reflect the effects of all of these vehicles.

Live Loads contd.


The variation will usually be greater than the variation in dead load effect. To minimize this difference, it is necessary to select a rating Legal Truck with axle spacing and relative axle weights similar to actual vehicles. Three Legal Trucks shown in Figure 4-1 to 4-3 are recommended as evaluation vehicles. These vehicles, together with the prescribed live load factors, give a realistic estimate of the maximum live load effects of a variety of heavy trucks in actual traffic.

Live Loads contd.


The moving loads to be applied on the deck for calculating maximum nominal live loading effects shall be the three Legal Trucks. The spacing and axle weights chosen for these vehicle types were selected from actual trucks. It is believed that these typical vehicles correspond better to existing traffic and will provide more uniform reliability than the old standard AASHTO H or HS design trucks. In computing load effects, one Legal Truck shall be considered present in each lane. The positioning of the vehicle in each lane shall be according to Chapter 3 of ERA: Load Requirements. It is unnecessary to place more than one vehicle in a lane since the load factors shown below have been modeled for this possibility. These load factors shall be considered applicable for spans up to 60m.

Figure 4-1 Truck Type 3 Unit Weight = 227 kN

Figure 4-2 Truck Type 3-2 Unit Weight = 325 kN

Figure 4-3 Truck Type 3-3 Unit Weight = 364 kN

Number of Design Lanes: Generally, the number of design lanes should be determined by taking the integer part of the ratio w/3600, where w is the clear roadway width in mm between curbs and/or barriers. Multiple Presence of Live Load: The provisions of this subchapter shall not be applied to the fatigue limit state for which one design truck is used, regardless of the number of design lanes. Trucks will be present in adjacent lanes on roadways with multiple design lanes but this is unlikely that all adjacent lanes will be loaded simultaneously. This will be considered by the multiple presence factors. When the loading condition includes the pedestrian loads combined with one or more lanes of the vehicular live load, the pedestrian loads shall be taken to be one loaded lane. Number of Loaded 1 Lanes Multiple Presence 1.20 Factors m 2 1.0 3 0.85 >3 0.65

Vehicular Live Loads

Vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges structures, designated HL-93, and shall consist of a combination of the: Design truck or design tandem, and Design lane load

Design truck: The weights and spacing of axles and wheels for the design truck shall be as specified in Figure below.

Plan of Design Truck Load showing tire contact areas

4.3 m

4.3 9.0 m

1.8 m

3.000 mm

Design Lane Load: The design lane load shall consist of a load of 9.3 kN/m, uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction. Transversely, the design lane load shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over a 3.0-m width. The force effects from the design lane load shall not be subject to a dynamic load allowance.

Dynamic Load Allowance


(IM = Vehicular Dynamic Load Allowance): Dynamic effects due to moving vehicles shall be attributed to two sources: Hammering effect is the dynamic response of the wheel assembly to riding surface discontinuities, such as deck joints, cracks, potholes, and delaminations, and Dynamic response of the bridge as a whole to passing vehicles, which shall be due to long undulations in the roadway pavement, such as those caused by settlement of fill, or to resonant excitation as a result of similar frequencies of vibration between bridge and vehicle. The frequency of vibration of any bridge should not exceed 3 Hz.

Dynamic load allowance need not be applied to Retaining walls not subject to vertical reactions from the superstructure, and Foundation components that are entirely below ground level. The dynamic load allowance shall not be applied to pedestrian loads or to the design lane load. The factor to be applied to the static load shall be taken as: (1 + IM/100). Table 4.4 Dynamic Load Allowance, IM Component IM

Deck Joints All Limit States 75% All Other Components Fatigue and All Other Limit States

15% 33%