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You are on page 1of 43

Eric G. Paterson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 2

Note to Instructors

These slides were developed

1

, during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid

for the undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two

sections, one taught by myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave

common homework and exams, we independently developed lecture notes. This was

also the first semester that Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was

used at PSU. My section had 93 students and was held in a classroom with a computer,

projector, and blackboard. While slides have been developed for each chapter of Fluid

Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, I used a combination of blackboard and

electronic presentation. In the student evaluations of my course, there were both positive

and negative comments on the use of electronic presentation. Therefore, these slides

should only be integrated into your lectures with careful consideration of your teaching

style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson

Penn State, University Park

August 2005

1

This Chapter was not covered in our class. These slides have been developed at the request of McGraw-Hill

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 3

Objectives

Understand how flow in open channels

differs from flow in pipes

Learn the different flow regimes in open

channels and their characteristics

Predict if hydraulic jumps are to occur

during flow, and calculate the fraction of

energy dissipated during hydraulic jumps

Learn how flow rates in open channels

are measured using sluice gates and

weirs

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 4

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

Open-channel flows are

characterized by the

presence of a liquid-gas

interface called the free

surface.

Natural flows: rivers,

creeks, floods, etc.

Human-made systems:

fresh-water aqueducts,

irrigation, sewers,

drainage ditches, etc.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 5

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

In an open channel,

Velocity is zero on bottom and sides of

channel due to no-slip condition

Velocity is maximum at the midplane of the

free surface

In most cases, velocity also varies in the

streamwise direction

Therefore, the flow is 3D

Nevertheless, 1D approximation is made with

good success for many practical problems.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 6

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

Flow in open channels is

also classified as being

uniform or nonuniform,

depending upon the

depth y.

Uniform flow (UF)

encountered in long

straight sections where

head loss due to friction

is balanced by elevation

drop.

Depth in UF is called

normal depth y

n

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 7

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

Obstructions cause the flow depth to vary.

Rapidly varied flow (RVF) occurs over a short distance

near the obstacle.

Gradually varied flow (GVF) occurs over larger distances

and usually connects UF and RVF.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 8

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

Like pipe flow, OC flow can be laminar,

transitional, or turbulent depending upon the

value of the Reynolds number

Where

= density, = dynamic viscosity, v = kinematic viscosity

V = average velocity

R

h

= Hydraulic Radius = A

c

/p

A

c

= cross-section area

P = wetted perimeter

Note that Hydraulic Diameter was defined in pipe flows as

D

h

= 4A

c

/p = 4R

h

(D

h

is not 2R

h

, BE Careful!)

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 9

Classification of Open-Channel Flows

The wetted perimeter

does not include the

free surface.

Examples of R

h

for

common geometries

shown in Figure at the

left.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 10

Froude Number and Wave Speed

OC flow is also

classified by the

Froude number

Resembles

classification of

compressible flow

with respect to Mach

number

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 11

Froude Number and Wave Speed

Critical depth y

c

occurs at Fr = 1

At low flow velocities (Fr < 1)

Disturbance travels upstream

y > y

c

At high flow velocities (Fr > 1)

Disturbance travels downstream

y < y

c

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 12

Froude Number and Wave Speed

Important parameter in study

of OC flow is the wave speed

c

0

, which is the speed at

which a surface disturbance

travels through the liquid.

Derivation of c

0

for shallow-

water

Generate wave with plunger

Consider control volume (CV)

which moves with wave at c

0

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 13

Froude Number and Wave Speed

Continuity equation (b = width)

Momentum equation

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 14

Froude Number and Wave Speed

Combining the momentum and continuity relations and

rearranging gives

For shallow water, where oy << y,

Wave speed c

0

is only a function of depth

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 15

Specific Energy

Total mechanical energy of the

liquid in a channel in terms of

heads

z is the elevation head

y is the gage pressure head

V

2

/2g is the dynamic head

Taking the datum z=0 as the

bottom of the channel, the

specific energy E

s

is

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 16

Specific Energy

For a channel with constant

width b,

Plot of E

s

vs. y for constant V

and b

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 17

Specific Energy

This plot is very useful

Easy to see breakdown of E

s

into pressure (y)

and dynamic (V

2

/2g) head

E

s

as y 0

E

s

y for large y

E

s

reaches a minimum called the critical point.

There is a minimum Es required to support the

given flow rate.

Noting that Vc = sqrt(gy

c

)

For a given E

s

> E

s,min

, there are two different

depths, or alternating depths, which can occur

for a fixed value of E

s

A small change in Es near the critical point

causes a large difference between alternate

depths and may cause violent fluctuations in flow

level. Operation near this point should be

avoided.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 18

1D steady continuity equation can

be expressed as

1D steady energy equation

between two stations

Head loss h

L

is expressed as in

pipe flow, using the friction factor,

and either the hydraulic diameter

or radius

Continuity and Energy Equations

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 19

Continuity and Energy Equations

The change in elevation head can be written in terms

of the bed slope o

Introducing the friction slope S

f

The energy equation can be written as

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 20

Uniform Flow in Channels

Uniform depth occurs

when the flow depth (and

thus the average flow

velocity) remains

constant

Common in long straight

runs

Flow depth is called

normal depth y

n

Average flow velocity is

called uniform-flow

velocity V

0

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 21

Uniform Flow in Channels

Uniform depth is maintained as long as the slope,

cross-section, and surface roughness of the channel

remain unchanged.

During uniform flow, the terminal velocity reached, and

the head loss equals the elevation drop

We can the solve for velocity (or flow rate)

Where C is the Chezy coefficient. f is the friction

factor determined from the Moody chart or the

Colebrook equation

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 22

Best Hydraulic Cross Sections

Best hydraulic cross

section for an open

channel is the one

with the minimum

wetted perimeter for a

specified cross

section (or maximum

hydraulic radius R

h

)

Also reflects economy

of building structure

with smallest

perimeter

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 23

Best Hydraulic Cross Sections

Example: Rectangular Channel

Cross section area, A

c

= yb

Perimeter, p = b + 2y

Solve A

c

for b and substitute

Taking derivative with respect to

To find minimum, set derivative to zero

Best rectangular channel has

a depth 1/2 of the width

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 24

Best Hydraulic Cross Sections

Same analysis can be

performed for a trapezoidal

channel

Similarly, taking the derivative

of p with respect to q, shows

that the optimum angle is

For this angle, the best flow

depth is

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 25

Gradually Varied Flow

In GVF, y and V vary slowly,

and the free surface is stable

In contrast to uniform flow, S

f

=

S

0

. Now, flow depth reflects

the dynamic balance between

gravity, shear force, and

inertial effects

To derive how how the depth

varies with x, consider the total

head

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 26

Gradually Varied Flow

Take the derivative of H

Slope dH/dx of the energy line is equal to negative of the

friction slope

Bed slope has been defined

Inserting both S

0

and S

f

gives

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 27

Gradually Varied Flow

Introducing continuity equation, which can be written as

Differentiating with respect to x gives

Substitute dV/dx back into equation from previous slide,

and using definition of the Froude number gives a

relationship for the rate of change of depth

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 28

Gradually Varied Flow

This result is important. It

permits classification of liquid

surface profiles as a function of

Fr, S

0

, S

f

, and initial conditions.

Bed slope S

0

is classified as

Steep : y

n

< y

c

Critical : y

n

= y

c

Mild : y

n

> y

c

Horizontal : S

0

= 0

Adverse : S

0

< 0

Initial depth is given a number

1 : y > y

n

2 : y

n

< y < y

c

3 : y < y

c

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 29

Gradually Varied Flow

12 distinct

configurations for

surface profiles in

GVF.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 30

Gradually Varied Flow

Typical OC system

involves several

sections of different

slopes, with

transitions

Overall surface profile

is made up of

individual profiles

described on previous

slides

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 31

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Flow is called rapidly

varied flow (RVF) if the

flow depth has a large

change over a short

distance

Sluice gates

Weirs

Waterfalls

Abrupt changes in cross

section

Often characterized by

significant 3D and

transient effects

Backflows

Separations

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 32

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Consider the CV

surrounding the

hydraulic jump

Assumptions

1. V is constant at sections

(1) and (2), and |

1

and |

2

~ 1

2. P = gy

3. t

w

is negligible relative to

the losses that occur

during the hydraulic jump

4. Channel is wide and

horizontal

5. No external body forces

other than gravity

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 33

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Continuity equation

X momentum equation

Substituting and simplifying

Quadratic equation for y

2

/y

1

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 34

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Solving the quadratic equation and keeping only the

positive root leads to the depth ratio

Energy equation for this section can be written as

Head loss associated with hydraulic jump

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 35

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Often, hydraulic jumps

are avoided because they

dissipate valuable energy

However, in some cases,

the energy must be

dissipated so that it

doesnt cause damage

A measure of

performance of a

hydraulic jump is its

fraction of energy

dissipation, or energy

dissipation ratio

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 36

Rapidly Varied Flow and Hydraulic

Jump

Experimental

studies

indicate that

hydraulic

jumps can be

classified into

5 categories,

depending

upon the

upstream Fr

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 37

Flow Control and Measurement

Flow rate in pipes and ducts is

controlled by various kinds of

valves

In OC flows, flow rate is controlled

by partially blocking the channel.

Weir : liquid flows over device

Underflow gate : liquid flows under

device

These devices can be used to

control the flow rate, and to

measure it.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 38

Flow Control and Measurement

Underflow Gate

Underflow gates are located at

the bottom of a wall, dam, or

open channel

Outflow can be either free or

drowned

In free outflow, downstream

flow is supercritical

In the drowned outflow, the

liquid jet undergoes a hydraulic

jump. Downstream flow is

subcritical.

Free outflow

Drowned outflow

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 39

Flow Control and Measurement

Underflow Gate

E

s

remains constant for

idealized gates with

negligible frictional effects

E

s

decreases for real

gates

Downstream is

supercritical for free

outflow (2b)

Downstream is subcritical

for drowned outflow (2c)

Schematic of flow depth-specific

energy diagram for flow through

underflow gates

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 40

Flow Control and Measurement

Overflow Gate

Specific energy over a bump at station 2 E

s,2

can be

manipulated to give

This equation has 2 positive solutions, which depend

upon upstream flow.

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 41

Flow Control and Measurement

Broad-Crested Weir

Flow over a

sufficiently high

obstruction in an open

channel is always

critical

When placed

intentionally in an

open channel to

measure the flow

rate, they are called

weirs

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 42

Flow Control and Measurement

Sharp-Crested V-notch Weirs

Vertical plate placed in a

channel that forces the

liquid to flow through an

opening to measure the

flow rate

Upstream flow is

subcritical and becomes

critical as it approaches

the weir

Liquid discharges as a

supercritical flow stream

that resembles a free jet

Chapter 13: Open Channel Flow

ME33 : Fluid Flow 43

Flow Control and Measurement

Sharp-Crested V-notch Weirs

Flow rate equations can be derived using energy

equation and definition of flow rate, and experimental

for determining discharge coefficients

Sharp-crested weir

V-notch weir

where C

wd

typically ranges between 0.58 and 0.62

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