You are on page 1of 53

Date

Definition

Propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist

Why we study Propaganda?

Although much fewer large propaganda campaigns nowadays Growth of communication tools -> Accelerated flow of message Information overload We process information quickly and carelessly

Why study Propaganda??

This makes us easier to exploit e.g. By agitating emotions, playing on insecurities. etc. Thus, important to recognise propaganda techniques

History of Propaganda

Propaganda has existed since Ancient Times e.g. Was a subject of study at University in Mauryan Empire (321 - 185BC), India Has been in existence ever since Aided by the constant improvement of technology

Classification of Propaganda

Classification of Propaganda

White

Black

Grey

Real source openly identified

Identified as being from a source, but actually from opposing source

No identifiable source, real source omitted

Classification of Propaganda

White Propaganda

Real source openly identified

But information often still distorted and slanted

Classification of Propaganda

Black Propaganda

Identified as being from a source Actually from opposing source Objective: To slander and misrepresent enermy

E.g. Black Panther Coloring Book Incident (1968)

Black Panther Coloring Book!

Black Panther Party

Political group fighting for black rights


Against racism, police brutality

Black Panther Coloring Book!

This colouring book was mass mailed across America

Black Panther Coloring Book!

Black Panther Coloring Book!

Black Panther Coloring Book!

Black Panther Coloring Book!

Actually its FBI attempt to discredit Black Panther Party By exaggerating their militant, aggressive stance Caused people to stop listening to their legitimate grievances

Classification of Propaganda

Grey Propaganda

No identifiable source. Real source omitted E.g. Radio Liberty / Free Europe

Radio Liberty / Free Europe

Broadcast during Cold War In Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

A private international, democratic communication platform


Providing objective accounts of events Actually CIA funded Anti Communitist Tool

Propaganda Techniques

Propaganda Techniques

False Connections

Special Appeals Plain Folks Bandwagon Fear

Transfer
Testimonial

Word Games

Name calling Glittering Generalities Euphemisms

Transfer

Transferring the authority of something respected to the thing being avocated

Science, Religion ---> Politics, Products

Is the link relevant?

Is the information trustworthy

Testimonial

Citing a person / source


But is this person or source qualified??

Word Games: Name Calling


To create fear and arouse prejudice by using negative words To create an unfavourable opinion against a certain target Obvious

Subtle Way

Word Games:Glittering Generalities

Employ vague sweeping statements


Using Language associated with values and beliefs ( While lacking supporting information or reason )

Special Appeals : Plain Folks

To convince the audiece that the spokesperson is from humble origins Garner audiences trust Have audiences interest at heart Ideas are of the people

Special Appeals:Bandwangons

To persuade the audience to follow the crowd Creates the impression of widespread support Convince the target audience that if they dont join in they will be left out

Special Appeals:Fear

To redirect attension away from the merits of a particular proposal and towards steps that can be taken to reduce fear Seeks to change behavior of audience 4 elements to successful fear appeal

A threat A specific recommendation on how th audience should behave

Audience perception that the recommendation will be effective in addressing threat


Audience perception that they are capable of performing the recommend behavior

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s


Nazi Propaganda : How did it start?

Hitlers obsessions of creating a perfect race Propaganda combined with his charismatic speeches propelled him to political stardom Propaganda focus on eliminating the undesirables and indoctrinate the society to glorify his regime

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s


Joseph Goebbel (Propaganda Minister)
If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it.

Setup Reich Chamber of Commerce Provided radios to households but only channels speeches by Hitler Uses Generalities

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Initially, Hitler tried to court Britain into an alliance His propaganda praised the British as proficient Aryan Imperialist Later when at war with the British, they vilified them as oppressive, German hating plutocrats

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : Germany 1930s - 1940s

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Case Studies : United States

WWII

United States originially had no interest in joining the world war until the attack on Pearl Harbour There was a need to convince population the war was close at hand Therefore the rise or Propaganda in the United States Targeted at enlisting, military bonds and increase productivity

Case Studies : United States


Uncle Sam

WWII

The use of Uncle Sam became a propaganda symbol of the American Citizens A form of Transfer Propaganda Became an icon that urges the general male public to enlist and fight for Americas Freedom

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Lady Liberty

Another use of Transfer Propaganda

Poster refers themselves as Civilisation

Using Short and Direct Messages to communicate the ideas to the public Heavy use of Tansfer Propaganda to dictate meaning

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Name Calling

Using terms such as Mad Brute or Commi Using popular iconography to depict the enemy Showing them as monsters and evil creatures

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Using Film to as a media of propaganda Use the enemy's own films to expose their enslaving ends Without using evidence to substantiate the footage use

Case Studies : United States

WWII

Success of Propaganda

largely due to wide array of media used to spread the same message
Use transfer to carry the symbolic meaning of the symbols to evoke emotions Portray the Evil Axis as pure evil using name calling

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

United States need support from people and other nations to wage war in Iraq Doing so using a number of reasons

Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction Saddams regime as a treat to the USA and world peace Saddams regime had links with international terror groups The war was part of a war on international terrorism Spreading Democracy in the Middle East Helping the Iraqi people get rid of an oppressive regime

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Target Audience:

The Allies: Britian, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland, Russia and Turkey Americans

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Name Calling

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Political Censorship

Case Studies : United States

IRAQ

Outcome : Unsuccessful

Negative views shown from statistics by polls in other countries as well as the United States Claims were not back with evidence

Conclusion