---->During the call,two parties are on a voice channel.When the mobile unit moves out of the coverage area of that particular cell site,reception becomes weak.The present cell site requests a handoff.
----->The system switches the call to a new frequency channel in a new cell site without either interrupting the call or alerting the user. ----->The call continues as long as the user is talking.The user does not notice that the handoff occurrences.

2.At the cell boundary • If the signal strength between mobile unit and cell site is -100 dbm.handoff is requested.Handoffs • Handoff is needed in two situations where the cell site receives weak signals from the mobile unit:1.When the mobile unit is reaching the signal strength holes(gaps) within the cell site coverage area. .

Handoffs • Two Types of Handoffs • 1.The received signal strength(RSS) is RSS=C+I where C= carrier signal power and I=interference Disadvantage of using this scheme for deciding whether handoff is needed or not ------sometimes the value of I is very strong.an handoff is requested if the signal level is below a threshold level eg:-100 dbm in noise limited systems -95 dbm in interference limited systems The location receiver at each cell site measures all the signal strengths of all the receivers at the cell site. ------In another situation where handoffis not required takes place unnecessarily when I is very low eventhoughRSS is low . Based on signal strength In this.RSS level is higher and far above the threshold level and the handoff does not take place but theoretically it should take place.

handoff can be controlled by using C\I ratio .Based on Carrier to interference ratio The value of C\I at the cell boundary for handoff should be 18db in order to have toll quality voice.Handoffs 2. Therefore.

2 to 8 km. • Example:• 0.2 handoffs per call in a 16 to 24 km. Cell • 1-2 handoffs per call in a 3.The number of handoffs per call is relative to cells size.the greater the number and the value of implementing handoffs.The smaller the cell size.Handoffs • The number of handoffs depend upon the size of the cell site. Cell .

• When the signal strength reaches the level of a handoff(higher than the threshold level).Initiation of a Handoff • At the cell site. .signal strength is always monitored from a reverse voice channel.then the cell site sends a request to the MTSO for a handoff on the call.

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