1

2
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
• OBSERVED BY HENRICH HERTZ IN THE YEAR 1887

• ALBERT EINSTEIN EXPLAINED PHOTOELECTRIC
EFFECT ON THE BASIS OF PHOTON THEORY

PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE: PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
3
DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT
INTERFERENCE DIFFRACTION POLARIZATION
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT COMPTON EFFECT
HENCE LIGHT POSSES DUAL NATURE
Light behaves a particle under certain circumstances
4
DE BROGLIE HYPOTHESIS
“ If radiation which is basically a wave can exhibit particle nature under certain
circumstances, and since nature likes symmetry, then entities which exhibit
particle nature ordinarily, should also exhibit wave nature under suitable
circumstances”

In the Year 1924 Louis de Broglie
made the bold suggestion
The reasoning used might be paraphrased as follows:

1. Nature loves symmetry
2. Therefore the two great entities, matter and energy, must be mutually
symmetrical
3. If energy (radiant) is undulatory and/or corpuscular, matter must be
corpuscular and/or undulatory
5
nm
Volts V f or thus
nm
V
V
get we e and m h f or ng substituti
meV
h
mE
h
Then
V dif f erence Potential a by d accelerate
E Energy Kinetic with electron an f or
mv
h
p
h
wavelength Broglie de
1226 . 0
100
226 . 1
100
226 . 1
10 602 . 1 10 11 . 9 2
10 625 . 6
, ,
2 2
' '
' '
particle the of velocity the is v
particle the of mass the is m
Constant s Planck' is h
19 31
34
= =
=
=
× × × × ×
×
=
= =
= =
÷ ÷
÷
ì
ì
ì
ì
DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH
The Wave associated with the matter particle is called Matter Wave.
The Wavelength associated is called de Broglie Wavelength.

6
G P THOMSON’S EXPERIMENT
Diffraction of electrons from the Gold foil
suggests dual nature of Electrons
7
PROPERTIES OF MATTER WAVES
p
h
mv
h
= = ì
p
h
mv
h
= = ì

Properties of Matter Waves

 Matter waves are associated with moving particle.
 They are not Electromagnetic waves.
 Wavelength of the matter wave is given by
p
h
mv
h
= = ì

 The amplitude of the matter wave at the given point
determines the probability of finding the particle at that
point.
 There is no meaning for Phase velocity in case of matter
waves. Only group velocity has meaning.

8
HEINSENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
“It is impossible to determine both position and momentum of a particle
simultaneously and accurately. The product of uncertainty involved in the
determination of position and momentum simultaneously is greater or equal
to h/2Π ”

t 2
h
p x
x
> A × A
t 2
h
t E > A × A
Significance: “Probalility” replaces “Exactness”
An event which is impossible to occur according to classical physics has a
finite probability of occurrence according to Quantum Mechanics
9
SCHRODINGER’S CAT
A Paradox
10
TIME INDEPENDENT SCHROEDINGER EQUATION
Consider a particle of mass ‘m’, moving with a velocity ‘v’ along
+ ve X-axis. Then the according to de Broglie Hypothesis, the
wave length of the wave associated with the particle is given by
mv
h
= ì
A wave traveling along x-axis can be represented by the equation
( )
( ) x k t i
e A t x
÷ ÷
= +
e
,
11
Where Ψ(x,t) is called wave function. The differential equation of matter
wave in one dimension is derived as

( ) 0
8
2
2
2
2
= ÷ + ¢
t ¢
V E
h
m
dx
d
The above equation is called one-dimensional Schroedinger’s wave equation
in one dimension.In three dimensions the Schroedinger wave equation
becomes
( )
( ) 0
8
0
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ÷ + V
= ÷ +
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
¢
t
¢
¢
t ¢ ¢ ¢
V E
h
m
V E
h
m
z y x
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According to Max Born’s interpretation of the wavefunction, the only
quantity that has some meaning is
2
¢
2
¢
PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF WAVE FUNCTION
2
¢
The state of a quantum mechanical system can be
completely understood with the help of the wave function ψ.
But wave function ψ can be real or imaginary. Therefore no
meaning can be assigned to wavefunction ψ as it is.
which is called as probability density.
13
dv
We know that electron is definitely found somewhere in
the space. The wavefunction ψ, which satisfies the above
condition, is called normalized wavefunction.
Thus if ψ is the wavefunction of a particle within a small region of
volume dv, thengives the probability of finding the particle within the
region dv at the given instant of time.

dV
2
¢
}
=
V
1 dv
2
¢

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