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2

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

• OBSERVED BY HENRICH HERTZ IN THE YEAR 1887

• ALBERT EINSTEIN EXPLAINED PHOTOELECTRIC

EFFECT ON THE BASIS OF PHOTON THEORY

PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE: PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT

3

DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT

INTERFERENCE DIFFRACTION POLARIZATION

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT COMPTON EFFECT

HENCE LIGHT POSSES DUAL NATURE

Light behaves a particle under certain circumstances

4

DE BROGLIE HYPOTHESIS

“ If radiation which is basically a wave can exhibit particle nature under certain

circumstances, and since nature likes symmetry, then entities which exhibit

particle nature ordinarily, should also exhibit wave nature under suitable

circumstances”

In the Year 1924 Louis de Broglie

made the bold suggestion

The reasoning used might be paraphrased as follows:

1. Nature loves symmetry

2. Therefore the two great entities, matter and energy, must be mutually

symmetrical

3. If energy (radiant) is undulatory and/or corpuscular, matter must be

corpuscular and/or undulatory

5

nm

Volts V f or thus

nm

V

V

get we e and m h f or ng substituti

meV

h

mE

h

Then

V dif f erence Potential a by d accelerate

E Energy Kinetic with electron an f or

mv

h

p

h

wavelength Broglie de

1226 . 0

100

226 . 1

100

226 . 1

10 602 . 1 10 11 . 9 2

10 625 . 6

, ,

2 2

' '

' '

particle the of velocity the is v

particle the of mass the is m

Constant s Planck' is h

19 31

34

= =

=

=

× × × × ×

×

=

= =

= =

÷ ÷

÷

ì

ì

ì

ì

DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH

The Wave associated with the matter particle is called Matter Wave.

The Wavelength associated is called de Broglie Wavelength.

6

G P THOMSON’S EXPERIMENT

Diffraction of electrons from the Gold foil

suggests dual nature of Electrons

7

PROPERTIES OF MATTER WAVES

p

h

mv

h

= = ì

p

h

mv

h

= = ì

Properties of Matter Waves

Matter waves are associated with moving particle.

They are not Electromagnetic waves.

Wavelength of the matter wave is given by

p

h

mv

h

= = ì

The amplitude of the matter wave at the given point

determines the probability of finding the particle at that

point.

There is no meaning for Phase velocity in case of matter

waves. Only group velocity has meaning.

8

HEINSENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE

“It is impossible to determine both position and momentum of a particle

simultaneously and accurately. The product of uncertainty involved in the

determination of position and momentum simultaneously is greater or equal

to h/2Π ”

t 2

h

p x

x

> A × A

t 2

h

t E > A × A

Significance: “Probalility” replaces “Exactness”

An event which is impossible to occur according to classical physics has a

finite probability of occurrence according to Quantum Mechanics

9

SCHRODINGER’S CAT

A Paradox

10

TIME INDEPENDENT SCHROEDINGER EQUATION

Consider a particle of mass ‘m’, moving with a velocity ‘v’ along

+ ve X-axis. Then the according to de Broglie Hypothesis, the

wave length of the wave associated with the particle is given by

mv

h

= ì

A wave traveling along x-axis can be represented by the equation

( )

( ) x k t i

e A t x

÷ ÷

= +

e

,

11

Where Ψ(x,t) is called wave function. The differential equation of matter

wave in one dimension is derived as

( ) 0

8

2

2

2

2

= ÷ + ¢

t ¢

V E

h

m

dx

d

The above equation is called one-dimensional Schroedinger’s wave equation

in one dimension.In three dimensions the Schroedinger wave equation

becomes

( )

( ) 0

8

0

8

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

= ÷ + V

= ÷ +

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

¢

t

¢

¢

t ¢ ¢ ¢

V E

h

m

V E

h

m

z y x

12

According to Max Born’s interpretation of the wavefunction, the only

quantity that has some meaning is

2

¢

2

¢

PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF WAVE FUNCTION

2

¢

The state of a quantum mechanical system can be

completely understood with the help of the wave function ψ.

But wave function ψ can be real or imaginary. Therefore no

meaning can be assigned to wavefunction ψ as it is.

which is called as probability density.

13

dv

We know that electron is definitely found somewhere in

the space. The wavefunction ψ, which satisfies the above

condition, is called normalized wavefunction.

Thus if ψ is the wavefunction of a particle within a small region of

volume dv, thengives the probability of finding the particle within the

region dv at the given instant of time.

dV

2

¢

}

=

V

1 dv

2

¢

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