I.

Introduction
A. Theoretical Background

Research Problem C. Objectives D. Hypotheses
B.
II.

Methodology
A. Participants and Data Collection Procedures B.

Instrumentation

III.

Results and Interpretation
A. Discussion B.

Conclusion

The study examined here investigated how framing of diversity training (title, focus of content, assignment) and gender influenced participants’ attitudes.

Ultimately. as this will lead to an increase in business successes (Lindsley. a goal of diversity training is for employees to learn how to work effectively with those who are different from themselves. . 1998).

In order for organizations to become more competitive. . 2000). employees must think that the training program is worthwhile and in their best interest (Karp & Sammour.

Although framing has been studied in a number of organizational contexts. . little research has experimentally explored the potential effects that organizational message framing can have on workers’ attitudes toward diversity training.

Tannebaum. 1997) . Bennett. 1994) and between attitudes and training effectiveness (Alliger.. & Shotland. Traver.Framing and training effectiveness may be related through the two established relationships of framing and attitudes (Murrell et al.

Framing •Training course content •Training course title •Training course assignment Pretraining Attitudes •Backlash •Organizational message •Likelihood of transfer Training Outcomes •Effectiveness Individual Differences •Participant’s gender .

How does framing of diversity training and gender influence participants’ pretraining attitudes? .

How the framing and participant’s gender interact to affect pretraining attitudes. 2. . and training assignment) influences participant’s pretraining attitudes.The study seeks to determine 1. How framing of diversity training (through focus of training content. How the participant’s gender influences his or her pretraining attitudes. 3. course title.

I n d e p e n d e n t FRAMING Features:  Focus of Training Course Content  Training Course Title  Training Assignment  GENDER  D e p e n d e n t  PRETRAINING ATTITUDES Measures: Organizational Message Likelihood of transfer Backlash .

. a broad focus.1. Framing will have an effect on pretraining attitudes. a comprehensive title. Specifically. or a combination of these features. an advanced assignment.

. The participant’s gender will have an effect on pretraining attitudes: female participants will respond more favorably than men to a diversity training initiative.2.

or a combination of these features. The participant’s gender and framing will interact to influence pretraining attitudes: men will respond more negatively than women in their pretrainingattitudes to a frame with a narrow focus. a traditional title. a remedial assignment.3. .

Participants • 160 adults (72 men. students. 30 M. 130 organization employees) • Recruitment Process: e-mail invitations .A.B. 88 women. 36 minority. 124 white.

Data Collection Procedures • No time limits • Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition .

and previous participation in diversity training . and a note to the employees • Demographic questionnaire: race.Instrumentation • Web-based questionnaire • Course description: introduction. course objectives. age. gender.

00 were retained)  Participants were to rate using Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree) .Instrumentation • Attitude questionnaire:  23 items 21 items (only factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.

Likelihood of Transfer – measuring the extent to which participants felt that the training course was applicable to their job . Organizational Message – measures that evaluated participants’ perception of the initiative in relation to the organization 2.Three Composite Dependent Measures 1.

Three Composite Dependent Measures 3. Backlash – measuring the extent to which participants felt backlash would occur as a result of the training course .

gender. Focus of Training Content • Narrow “Participants will be asked to attend a lecture on racial issues in the workplace” • Broad “Participants will be asked to attend a lecture on issues such as racial.Operationalization of Framing 1. lifestyle. and personality differences in the workplace” .

2. Training Course Title •Traditional title “Diversity Training” •Comprehensive Title “Building Human Relations” .

Training Assignment •Remedial “After benchmarking with other companies in our industry. it has become apparent that our company is well below the average in turning individual differences into opportunities” •Advanced “After benchmarking with other companies in our industry. it has become apparent that our company is well above the average in turning individual differences into opportunities” .3.

title.This study employed an experimental design as these three features of framing (focus. and assignment) were manipulated and combined to form eight course descriptions and thereby eight conditions. .

Framing Hypothesis 1 There were no significant main effects for any of the features of framing on backlash. title and focus. the two way interaction between title and focus of course content significantly influenced the perceptions of backlash and the likelihood of transfer. did influence participants’ perceptions of backlash and the likelihood of transfer. However. likelihood of transfer. or organizational message. Two features of framing. .

There was a significant effect of gender on backlash. .Participant Gender Hypothesis 2 Our second hypothesis predicting an effect of participants’ gender on their attitudes toward the diversity training was supported. and likelihood of transfer. organizational message.

and gender on perception of backlash.Hypothesis 3 There was a significant three-way interaction between focus. . assignment.

Men reacted more negatively than women to the diversity training course 3. . A frame with a traditional title and a broad focus was responded to most favorably by Participants 2. Men reacted more negatively than women to a frame with a narrow focus and remedial assignment.1.

• This study provides specific recommendations for how human resource managers should label the initiative. what content to focus on. . and how to assign individuals to the training course.

such as tenure and occupation •In addition. •Finally. In addition to race. and consequently it was participants’ perceptions.•The small number of minority participants precluded our ability to examine race as a factor. that were assessed. . the participants in our study did not actually attend training. and not actual attitudes. those without access to the Internet were precluded from participating. other characteristics.

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