increasingly to   Extractive / energy companies Public or private security providers host countries  Model for individual agreements  Creates no legally binding obligations .What are the Voluntary Principles?  Tripartite. multi-stakeholder initiative  Initiated in 2000 by UK Foreign Office and US State Department  Guidelines for security arrangements between  Monitoring and enforcement provisions  Apply to participants.

Premises  States rights  Companies have human rights responsibilities  Companies need security  Companies can have significant influence on host country governments. economies. civil society are to protect and promote human .

Participants  Governments (7)  Companies (20)   Energy Extractive  Non-governmental (NGOs)(10) organizations .

New Participants  Applicants consensus  Steering Committee hears appeals of denials  Corporate applicants need not be based in a participating country must be approved by .

assist in implementation  Attend plenary.Participation Criteria  Publicly promote Voluntary Principles  Proactively implement. other meetings  Report annually on efforts. publicly and to Steering Committee  Dialogue with other participants  Respond to requests for information by other participants .

Part I – Risk Assessment      Identify security risks arising from political. social. economic factors Examine relevant human rights records Assess potential for violence & responsiveness of local authorities Identify & understand root causes of local conflicts Take special care in providing equipment   Feasible measures to prevent foreseeable problems Prevent misappropriation and diversion .

including offenders’  Deployment and conduct:    . proportionate.Part II – Companies & Public Security  Security arrangements:   Companies must train on human rights. “express desire” that forces comply Encourage host governments to create transparency re: security arrangements Ensure that past violators are not hired Ensure necessary. and responsible use of force Respect individual rights.

structured meetings with security  Consult with other companies. home and host governments.Part II – Companies & Public Security  Consultation and advice:  Regular. training and education  Responses to human right abuses:  Record and report any credible allegations of human rights abuses by public security  Monitor investigations. accountability. civil society  Address concerns collectively with other companies operating in the region  Promote host country compliance. promote due process and proper resolution .

Part III – Companies & Private Security      Sometimes private security is necessary to supplement public Same obligations as of Public security Private forces should observe the policies of the contracting company regarding ethical conduct and human rights Must be open to monitoring by local authorities Only preventive and defensive acts – stay out of military and law enforcement activities .

hire security providers that are representative of local population Run background check before contracting Open exchange of information on past abuses between companies. civil society . monitor compliance When possible.Part III – Companies & Private Security     Companies must draft contracts in accordance with Principles. home and host governments.

Enforcement  Direct dialogue  Raise concerns to Steering Committee for investigation  Well founded concerns are referred to Secretariat. which attempts to deal  If no deal. plenary is called to make recommendation  Failure to implement recommendation renders participant inactive .

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